Background: The prevalences of extended - spectrum beta - lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli ( E . coli ) and Klebsiella pneumoniae ( K . pneumoniae ) urinary tract infections (UTI) in children are increasing worldwide. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical findings, impact and risk factors of ESBL E . coli / K . pneumoniae UTI.
Methods: The medical records of children with UTI aged <15 years admitted to Prince of Songkla University Hospital were reviewed.
Results: Theirty-seven boys and 46 girls had ESBL in 102 UTI episodes; 85 boys and 103 girls had non-ESBL in all of their 222 UTI episodes. The median age at presentation was 1.5 (0.7 - 4.8) years for the ESBL group and 1.3 (0.6 - 3.9) for the non-ESBL group (p=0.2). Age and gender were not significantly different between the two groups. The prevalence of ESBL rose between 2004 and 2008 before plateauing at around 30-40% per year. The prevalences in first and recurrent UTI were 27.3% and 46.5%, respectively (p=0.003). Fever prior to UTI diagnosis was found in 78.4% of episodes in the non-ESBL group and 61.8% of episodes in the ESBL group (p=0.003). Multivariate analysis, children without fever (OR=2.14, 95% CI: 1.23-3.74) and those with recurrent UTI (OR=2.67, 95% CI: 1.37 – 5.19) were more likely to have ESBL UTI. The presence of CAKUT had no effect on ESBL UTI.
Conclusions: ESBL was found in one-third of E . coli / K . pneumoniae UTI episodes. No clinical condition nor imaging study could predict ESBL. Recurrent UTI was the only independent risk factor.