As an important factor leading to the failure of gear system, the study of thermal effect is insufficiently deep. Based on the finite element nodal method, a more comprehensive dynamic model of gear-rotor-bearing system is established, which considers the thermal related material properties, time-varying meshing stiffness (TVMS), backlash and friction, gyroscopic effect. The constitutive relation of beam element considering steady-state temperature is reconstructed, and thermal node load is formulated. Considering the influence of temperature on the material properties of flexible shaft and gear, the thermal related TVMS and thermal backlash are obtained. The dynamic response of the system under different steady-state temperature fields is compared, and the influence of hot backlash is studied, then the thermal related vibration characteristics are obtained. Besides, the influence of bearing type on bearing force and axial trajectory is studied. The results show that the system motion changes from period to chaos with the temperature increase in part of the speed range. The appropriate backlash is helpful to restrain the chaotic motion caused by temperature rise. Moreover, the temperature can significantly increase the axial bearing force, and the appropriate bearing can reduce the axial displacement.