Compound Kushen injection (CKI) is the most widely used traditional Chinese medicine preparation for the comprehensive treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) in China, but its underlying molecular mechanisms of action are still unclear. The present study employed a network pharmacology approach, in which we constructed a “bioactive compound-target-pathway” network. Experimental RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis was performed to identify a key “bioactive compound-target-pathway” network for subsequent experimental validation. Cell cycle, proliferation, autophagy, and apoptosis assays and a model of azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in mice were employed to detect the biological effect of CKI on CRC. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were performed to verify the selected targets and pathways. We constructed a predicted network that included 82 bioactive compounds, 34 targets, and 33 pathways and further screened an anti-CRC CKI “biological compound (hesperetin 7-O-rutinoside, genistein 7-O-rutinoside, and trifolirhizin)-target (p53 and checkpoint kinase 1 [CHEK1])” network that targeted the “cell cycle pathway”. Validation experiments showed that CKI effectively induced the cell-cycle arrest of CRC cells in vitro and suppressed the development of CRC in vivo by downregulating the expression of p53 and CHEK1. Our findings confirmed that inducing cell-cycle arrest by CKI is an important mechanism of its anti-CRC action, which provides a direct and scientific experimental basis for the clinical application of CKI.