The Cretaceous-Paleogene (KPg) mass extinction ~66 million years ago (Ma) was triggered by the Chicxulub impact on the present-day Yucatán Peninsula. This event caused the extinction of circa 76% of species, including all non-avian dinosaurs, and represents one of the most selective extinctions to date. The timing of the impact and its aftermath have mainly been studied on millennial timescales, leaving the season of the impact unconstrained. Here, we demonstrate that the impact that caused the KPg mass extinction took place during boreal spring. Osteohistology and stable isotope records of exceptionally preserved dermal and perichondrial bones in acipenseriform fishes from the Tanis impact-induced seiche deposits reveal annual cyclicity across the final years of the Cretaceous. These fishes ultimately perished in boreal spring. Annual life cycles, involving seasonal timing and duration of reproduction, feeding, hibernation, and aestivation, vary strongly across latest Cretaceous biotic diversity. We conclude that the timing of the Chicxulub impact in boreal spring significantly influenced selective biotic survival across the KPg boundary.