Background: Previous studies have found some evidence of association between changes in lipids and lipoprotein and viral pneumonia. No data are available about the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) on lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between lipid profiles and inflammation markers among patients with Covid-19.
Methods: In this retrospective analysis, Covid-19 patients in Jin-yin-tan Hospital and healthy individuals from Daping Hospital were enrolled. The clinical and biochemical characteristics of Covid-19 patients and healthy controls were compared. We correlated lipid parameters to disease severity and inflammatory markers. The severity of Covid-19 for all patients were stipulated according to the diagnostic and treatment guideline for Covid-19 issued by Chinese National Health Committee (the 7th edition).
Results: A total of 242 Covid-19 patients and 242 sex-age matched controls were enrolled. Compared with controls, Covid-19 patients had lower lymphocyte counts as well as total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-c) and apoA-I levels on admission. Whereas apolipoprotein B (apoB) and apoB/apoA-I ratio were slightly higher in patients with Covid-19. There was no difference in lipid levels between the moderate and severe groups. The total lymphocytes were weakly positively associated with TC, LDL-c and apoA-I.
Conclusion: Patients with Covid-19 are associated with decreased lipid and lipoprotein levels. Covid-19 infection induced inflammation response and cytokine storm were associated with a shift of lipids, lipoproteins toward a more atherogenic lipid profile.