In recent years, various concepts of sustainable development paradigm have been proposed, As concepts such as green city, ecosystem, livable city and urban environment have been coined in the framework of sustainable urban development (Rahnama et al., 2009) But in general if taking action to increase welfare, is not accompanied by environmental considerations, it will cause irreparable damage, including rapid climate change and environmental degradation (Pourali et al., 2019). Because according to studies, environmental issues cover the integrity of cities (Shukri and Behzadfar, 2019) Thus, today, the concept of "green" has been changed in to a norm (Margarta and Saragi, 2013). And "green actions" refer to activities that not only do not harm the environment, but also improve it.
, there is a growing literature in the field of management considering green marketing, green accounting, green management and green human resource management (Renwick et al., 2013). Human resource management is one of the main responsibilities of management in any organization and all managers of various levels of the organization have some kind of responsibility. Therefore, human resource management is considered to be the exploitation of the company's human capital to achieve organizational goals (Seyed Javadin et al., 2016). The term green human resource management was introduced in 2011 as a completely new approach and has been accepted worldwide since 2000 as a concept that manages the environment within the organization by adopting green human resource policies and practices (Ahmad, 2015). Adahikari et al. (2013) state that green human resource management provides an efficient and effective use of natural resources in any business by using human resource management methods and practices. (Bhutto and Uranzb, 2016) one of the most important roles for creating green thinking among the employees in green organizations is the role of managers and human resource experts, which should turn employees into people who are committed to environmental issues.
To achieve environmental goals, environmental issues must be defined and implemented in various human resource management policies, including recruitment and employment, training, performance appraisal, and reward (Notron et al., 2019). In general, green human resource management suggests that human resources should be redesigned or re-engineered to be sensitive to laws, policies, resources, proper consumption, non-extravagance, and so on so that they provide optimal and targeted consumption of resources and reduce environmental pollution. The success of green human resource management depends on re-reading the concept of being green and reflecting it in all human resource processes. Therefore, the concept of greenness must be applied in organizational strategies and subsequently in human resource management strategies. In order to achieve the alignment of green resources and human resource strategies, we need synergistic coherence and interaction between human resource management subsystems, and this synergy can be achieved with factors such as green culture, productive and dynamic. Dissemination of green organizational culture is the basis for the formation of strategic goals of green human resource management and then the strategic goals of the organization. The transition from human resource management without a green approach to managing green human resources has many challenges. One of these challenges is the type of interaction of different human resource subsystems with green human resource management (Tavakoli et al., 1397). Behavior, knowledge, and environmental attitudes are among the factors that play an important role in environmental culture. Environmental behavior is the behavior of an individual in dealing with the environment that each person has a different approach to the environment according to their specific social, cultural and personality conditions and needs (Nawah et al., 2012). Environmental knowledge is the practical information that people have about the environment, the ecology of the planet Earth and the impact of human actions on the environment (Mehdi Karami et al., 2016). Motivation has been defined by researchers as a force that reinforces and directs behavior. Therefore, it is obvious that employees must be sufficiently motivated to achieve goals. Awareness of the management of green human resources and involvement of its activities along with the activities of people within the organization, as an important motivating factor can be effective. On the other hand, the lack of alignment in the attitude of managers and employees about the needs and motivations of employees is one of the important factors in causing problems in organizations. (Data, 2012). Here are some activities and factors related to green human resource management: Green Human Resource Planning: Green human resource planning means anticipating the number and types of employees needed to successfully implement the organization's programs and activities (Arrolrajah et al., 2015). Thus, leading organizations need to plan in such areas to respond to environmental demands in order to manage their environmental issues (Yaleh, 2017).
Green Recruitment: Green Recruitment refers to providing or creating transparency about the organization's environmental performance (past and present) when sending recruitment messages. In fact, this process reflects the organization's environmental policies and strategies in recruitment (Arrolraja et al., 2015).
Green Education: Education is the beginning of development (Ramezanian et al., 2009) In order to preserve nature, appropriate educational approaches are needed to move in the direction of growing knowledge, behavior and environmental attitudes. So that along with developing the required knowledge and skills, it will lead to a secure future. One of the most important tools is environmental education, which affects the culture of communities and, in fact, provides the necessary conditions for results. In fact, environmental education is the most fundamental method in environmental protection and its goal is to find the most appropriate and best way to present content and activities and implement a structure that promotes environmental awareness in society. The objectives of this training, which is typically (long-term and sustainable) to increase environmental knowledge and attitudes and in the same direction, the development of friendly environment behavior and is considered as a necessary basis for friendly environmental behavior (Azadkhani et al., 1397).
Green Evaluation: In fact, creating and applying green performance which means forming a set of green criteria such as environmental responsibilities, reducing costs, and environmental concerns to assess employee performance is inevitable (Tang et al., 2017).
Green Service Rewards and Compensation: One of the effective systems in human resource management system is service compensation, payments and the organization's reward system (Giancola, 2009). The reward management system in the context of each organization guarantees the provision of financial and non-financial needs of employees and rewards them according to their level of participation in achieving the goals of the organization (Tavakoli et al., 1397).
Green Organizational Culture: Studies show that organizational culture affects all aspects of the organization. In other words, in the organization, the phenomenon is not far from culture (Rastegar and Kooshesh Tabar, 2017). Researchers have shown that green resource management practices improve a company's environmental performance. However, existing studies do not explain how green human resource management initiatives can activate a green organizational culture or how such a culture affects the company's environmental performance and sustainable development (Samuel et al., 2019).
Economic factors: Because the economy is an open system, the three main processes (extraction, processing, or production and consumption) involve the production of waste that is eventually returned to the environment (air, water, or land). Excessive waste in inappropriate places and times will cause biological changes in the environment, which in turn will harm animals, plants and the ecosystem. Due to the spread of polluted substances in the air, their discharge into water or land and as a result of imposing an external cost, irreparable damage (health damage, increase in disease or death, reduction of recreation and entertainment, etc.) is done to human well-being. (Kamrani Sharif, 1397).
Green Suppliers: Sustainable Supply Chain Management is one of the most important issues in the areas of sustainability and supply chain management (Hassani Bamkan et al., 2009) The selection of suppliers plays an important role in supply chain management. Paying attention to sustainability in the supply chain has made the issue of selecting suppliers a challenging issue. At present, in literature, more focus has been on paying attention to economic indicators in order to select and evaluate suppliers and less attention has been paid to the three economic, environmental and social factors as sustainability factors (Ardavan et al., 1397).
Media: Today, environmental protection is recognized as the most effective mechanism for society to face the greatest challenge of the century, sustainable development. Meanwhile, the media plays a very important role in socializing and internalizing the resources that make up social capital, especially participation, and this media function can have a very significant impact on sustainable national development (Taghavi et al., 2016). Mass media, as new communication channels and introducing an important role in the process of informing different individuals and communities, strengthen the intellectual and cultural foundations of society (Meshkini et al., 1397).
Technology: Today, with the arrival of the third millennium and the beginning of the virtual era and the introduction of nanotechnology and the emergence of information and communication technology, most societies have undergone fundamental changes (Sarai and Khavarian, 1397). In the 21st century, energy consumption has received more attention. Because energy loss causes damage to capital waste and increases the problem of global warming. In today's society, as the number of computers is increasing day by day, the amount of electricity consumed by them also increases the carbon content in the Earth's atmosphere. This problem is understood by governments and organizations, and steps are being taken to minimize the use of computer power. By using green information technology, energy consumption can be reduced through green computing techniques, which means less carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels in power plants and transportation. This will also save money and energy. Developed countries have taken great steps in controlling environmental pollution by investing in renewable energy, improving energy efficiency and new technologies, but developing countries still face serious challenges, and Iran is no exception. Today, the use of solar energy to generate electricity as a source of free, clean and sustainable energy has grown significantly around the world. The results of the Energy Consumption Survey around the world show that about one-third of this consumption belongs to buildings (Thomson, 2016). Today, buildings called green buildings are designed to take into account architectural conditions and patterns in order to have the lowest energy consumption in terms of mechanical and electrical facilities. The use of solar panels in residential and office buildings is one of the practical applications of green building theory, which causes optimal consumption and energy protection in buildings through the absorption of solar energy. It should be noted that the highest consumption of an office building is during office hours and during the day when solar radiation is available and it is possible to directly convert sunlight into electricity and consume it by consumers at the same time. In this way, it is possible to consider the energy optimization process, which is economical and environmentally friendly. (Nasirzadeh and Shafiee, 1397) In general, the use of information and communication technology according to the social approach of sustainable development increases the productivity of organizations (Bastami et al., 2017). Government: Governments may not be able to obtain the information needed to track all the consequences of an activity, and often policymakers do not realize that activities that do not seem to be related to the environment will affect the environment. Third, government policymakers may make good decisions and provide a good framework for environmental law, but those laws must be enforced, and this requires the use of the knowledge of experts who are part of the state bureaucracy. The role of bureaucrats is very important and they can easily influence the nature of the rules in implementation. However, in many cases, the bureaucrats have not been elected and may not feel motivated to do their duty and serve the community, unless they are under the control of the relevant authorities, and this is very difficult (Kamrani Sharif, 1397). Participation: Protecting the environment is a public and national duty, and every individual and organization must be sensitive and participatory in protecting the environment within the scope of their individual and social duties and responsibilities (Ahangari Kiasari and Charmchian Langroudi, 1397). The choice of the type of urban management model reflects the prevailing attitude in regulating the relations between the council and the municipality and, most importantly, the level of participation and executive power. The model of city administration is closely related to solving or creating urban problems (Nazari and Rahimi, 2012). One of the best platforms for public participation in the field of environment and natural resources is the formation of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Despite their long history, these organizations need to examine the relationship between flexibility and natural resources and cooperation in real-world conditions (Fisher et al., 2018). Non-governmental organizations play an important role in the management of natural resources of developing countries (Ariti et al., 2018). Participation is the process by which individuals, groups, and organizations play an active role in making and implementing decisions that directly affect them. In general, we can define participation as a process of people's participation in determining their own destiny. (Ahangari Kiasari and Langroudi, 1397) Participation refers to a set of attitudes, methods, and behaviors that enable people to examine and discuss the reality of their lives and living conditions. This helps them plan and know what to do and evaluate and view the results (Yasuri et al., 2017). According to the importance of man as the goal of development on the one hand and the importance of natural resources as a suitable platform for human activity on the other hand, the issue of having a healthy environmental right for the current and future generations of human beings was seriously raised. In such an environment, the role of public participation as one of the key tools in the realization of human development and the preservation of the environment and natural resources was considered. What is certain is that NGOs continue to operate as spontaneous and organized forces. Therefore, it is suggested that in order to be more productive in the activities of the public and non-governmental sectors, the use of these public capacities should be aimed at sustaining the development goals and accelerating the achievement of the 20-year vision. NGOs can play an important role in information activities. If the necessary basis for the connection of these organizations to domestic, regional and international networks related to natural resources is done, this can lead to the improvement of information management in these organizations (Khosravipoor et al., 2009).
Green designing: Green designing is a practical solution to problems in which natural resources before, after and during the production and manufacturing process are damaged to a minimum level. In addition, in the course of this operation, the materials must be useful, have a long useful life and can be returned to the cycle of nature (Darban and Javadnia, 1397). Therefore, achieving spatial desirability and creating a better-quality environment to improve the quality of life of individuals is always considered as one of the highest design goals (Taghipour and Heidari, 2009). The following is a summary of recent human resource management research:
In their research, Zayd et al. (2016) showed that green human resource management practices have a direct impact on sustainable performance, and green supply chain management methods mediate this. Green resources management provides a positive intermediary between human resource management practices and sustainable performance (Yaghoubi et al., 1397). Studies by Kim et al. (2019) showed that green human resource management increases employee organizational commitment, and environmental performance. Aibaghi Esfahani et al. (2016) in a study entitled Green Human Resource Management: A Model for Sustainability in Sports Organizations, showed that the activities carried out in the General Directorate of Sports and Youth of North Khorasan Province with a rate of 63% are most in line with green human resource management standards. However, awareness of green human resource standards has been at a lower than average level and it has been suggested that the North Khorasan Sports and Youth Organization try to strengthen this dimension by holding appropriate training and information courses on green human resources. Tavakoli et al. (1397) in a study entitled Structural model of green human resource management based on human resource management systems, showed that the order of effectiveness of variables to achieve green human resource management is: maintenance, service compensation, performance management and human resource development, And the relationship between these systems and green human resource management is significant. Rosco et al. (2019) in a study entitled "Green human resource management and enabling organizational green culture with the aim of increasing environmental performance in line with sustainable development" say that activities related to green human resource management increase organizational environmental performance. The study was conducted among 204 employees of Chinese construction companies. The research findings suggest that human resource management activities, including recruitment, training, evaluation, and reward systems, lead to the flourishing of organizational green culture, including leadership, employee engagement in organizational goals, and employee empowerment. In a study titled "The Impact of Green Human Resource Management on Organizational Environmental Performance in Jordanian Health Services Organizations", Ranan Ravashedeh (2019) showed that the performance of a group of green jobs in those organizations was moderate, and there was a positive statistical relationship between individual green human resource management work and environmental performance. The strongest correlation was related to the employment and green selection, while the weakest correlation was related to education and development.