COVID 19 is a pandemic that has radically altered the global health care scenario. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of otorhinolaryngological symptoms of dysgeusia and anosmia in Indian population in an attempt to understand the symptomatology of COViD 19 as compared to patients elsewhere in the world.
Post-viral chemosensory dysfunction has been long confirmed in various viral illnesses. It forms a majority of the patients presenting with anosmia in clinical settings. These include over 200 different viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infections including rhinovirus, coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, respiratory syncytial virus amongst others. It can therefore be theorized that patients infected by SARS CoV-2 will also present with anosmia and dysgeusia. This chemosensory alteration has been attributed to various factors including olfactory neuropathy, degeneration of olfactory neurons and in some cases conductive olfactory loss. In two thirds of the cases this reduction in sensation of smell is usually completely resolved.
The European Rhinology Society has reported that a significant number of the COViD-19 patients (20-60%) had loss of smell and that, in many, it occurred before other more frequently encountered symptoms like cough/fever. It has been suggested by studies that these individuals could have been hidden carries of SARS-CoV-2 as they did not meet the criteria for diagnosing COViD-19 previously.
Studies from and Italy have shown that a significant number of patients suffering from COVID-19 had hyposmia/anosmia. In Germany 2 in 3 confirmed cases were reported to haveanosmia.
Based on the latest research, anosmia/hyposmia is seen to be more prevalent in COVID-19 patients in some American and European countries as compared to Asian countries.Lovato and de Filippis reviewed articles about the clinical presentation of COViD-19 in 1556 patients from China, with none exhibitinganosmia or hyposmia . Mao et al. retrospectively evaluated the symptoms of 214 patients in Wuhan, China, and found that only 5.1% of the patients reportedolfactory dysfunction . South Korea has reports of 30% of infected individuals having developed hyposmia/anosmia.
In a systematic review and meta-analysis by Agyeman and Chin et al 41% and 38% of diagnostic-confirmed patients with COVID-19 infection presented with olfactory or gustatory dysfunctions, respectively. Increasing age correlated with lower prevalence of these symptoms. There was no significant differencein the prevalence of olfactory or gustatory dysfunction by gender.
In another systematic review and meta-analysis, of 10 studies, Tong et al found a prevalence of 52.73% of anosmia amongst patients with COVID-19. Nine studies were analyzed for dysgeusia (n = 1390), demonstrating a prevalence of 43.93%. 
Spinato et al in their study found that 130 of 202 confirmed COViD -19 patients (64.4%) reported alterations in smell or taste. . Sayin e al conducted a comparative study in 128 patients divided into two groups, those that tested positive for COViD - 19 and those who tested negative. There was a significant difference in the rates of smell and taste impairmentbetween the two groups (71.9% for the COVID-19-positive group and 26.6% for the COViD-19-negative group (P = .001). The rates of hyposmia/parosmia and hypogeusia/dysgeusia were found to be significantly higher in the COViD-19-positive group.
Yan et al evaluated 59 COViD‐19–positive patients and 203 COViD‐19–negative patients in their study. Loss of smell and taste were reported in 68% and 71% of COViD‐19–positive subjects, respectively, compared to 16% and 17% of COViD‐19–negative patients (p < 0.001). 
In an aggregate analysis of 28 articles related to COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and other coronaviruses Lehrich et al demonstrated an incidence of 49.6%, 47.9% and 17.9% for loss of smell, loss of taste and loss of either, respectively, in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, there were significantly higher incidences of runny nose/rhinorrhea/rhinitis and nasal congestion/obstruction/blockage in other coronaviruses as compared with SARS-CoV-2 (P < .001).
Leichen et all found that amongst 417 mild to moderate COViD-19 patients, 85.6% and 88.0% of patients reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions, respectively 
In our study 22% of the patients presented with anosmia and 40 % of the patients presented with dysgeusia. Most other studies have established a female preponderance when it comes to chemosensory dysfunction. However in our study there was no significant difference between males and females with respect to prevalence of olfactory or gustatory dysfunction.