Land use/cover change (LUCC) affects regional climate not only through its direct changes of land surface properties, but also through its further modifications of land-atmosphere interactions. Urban land expansion is a typical case of LUCC in highly populated areas, and has been widely discussed about its impacts on regional air temperature, notably known as urban heat island (UHI) effects. Besides air temperature, atmospheric humidity, as another key variable in hydrometeorology and climate, would be inevitably affected by LUCC as well. However, the impacts of LUCC on atmospheric humidity seem to have not been investigated as much as on temperature. We examined atmospheric humidity changes by trend analyses of humidity indicators in three representative urban agglomerations in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB), China during 1965-2017, and found the evident urban dry island (UDI) effects which are characterized by significant humidity decrease and vapor pressure deficit increase. In different urban cores, the severity levels of UDI are different. Furthermore, strong positive correlations between humidity and evapotranspiration, and between evapotranspiration and leaf area were detected during 2001-2017 when cities entered the accelerated stage of land expansion, indicating that LUCC affects regional climate through an ecohydrological way. We speculated that the UDI effect will not appear until urban land expands to a certain scale. Besides, the UHI effect emerged in the early stage of urban expansion, about 5 years earlier than the UDI effect, and has not performed prominently in recent years. This implies that urbanization-induced LUCC may exert a larger influence on UDI than on UHI in the current later period of urban expansion.