Grain size is a key constituent of grain weight and appearance in rice. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the small-effect QTLs on grain size. In the present study, residual heterozygous populations were developed for mapping two genetically linked small-effect QTLs for grain size. After genotyping and phenotyping of five successive generations, qGS7.1 was dissected into three QTLs and two were selected for further analysis. qTGW7.2a was finally mapped into a 21.10-kb interval containing four annotated candidate genes. Transcript levels assay showed that the expression of candidates LOC_Os07g39490 and LOC_Os07g39500 were significantly reduced in the NIL- qTGW7.2a BG1 . Cytological observation indicated that qTGW7.2a regulated grain width through controlling cell expansion. Use the same strategy, qTGW7.2b was fine mapped into a 52.71-kb interval, showing a significant effect on grain length and width with opposite allelic directions but little on grain weight. Our study provides new genetic resources for yield improvement and fine-tunes of grain size in rice.