Recognizing signs and fonts of prehistoric language is a fairly difficult job that require special tools. This stipulation makes the dispensation period overriding, difficult, and tiresome to calculate. This paper presents a technique for recognizing ancient south Indian languages by applying Artificial Neural Network (ANN) associated with Opposition based Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm (OGWA). It identifies the prehistoric language, signs and fonts. It is apparent from the ANN system that arbitrarily produced weights or neurons linking various layers plays a significant role in its performance. For adaptively determining these weights, this paper applies various optimization algorithms such as Opposition based Grey Wolf Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization and Grey Wolf Optimization to the ANN system. Performance results have illustrated that the proposed ANN-OGWO technique achieves superior accuracy over the other techniques. In test case 1, the accuracy value of OGWO is 94.89% and in test case 2, the accuracy value of OGWO is 92.34%, on average, the accuracy of OGWO achieves 5.8% greater accuracy than ANN-GWO, 10.1% greater accuracy than ANN-PSO and 22.1% greater accuracy over conventional ANN technique.