4.4 BDA themes
It is viable to identify outstanding issues of research that are of excessive relevance which has termed in five themes using NVIVO12, presented in Fig. 5. Following Table 10 illustrates them in detail and provide some suggestion by creating the research framework model on how the future researchers could approach these problems.
Research Category - Themes
Resource concinnity of Big data analytics
Only 12% have focused to define about implementing BDAC, but very limited knowledge has been provided in orchestrating and handling such resources to build BDAC in organization. It is essential to growing the potential so that can leverage these resources strategically. Therefore, it is decisive for future research to examine the proficient-building process.
Big Data proficiencies
Only 7% focused on the organisation’s proficiency and very less knowledge provided on Big data proficiency, it is vital to differentiate between those two. Fundamentally, an organization can implement and develop substantial BDA proficiencies, but the utilization is only towards specific organisation functions such as finance, marketing etc. Therefore, the future research should focus on BDAC efficiency as well as organization’s proficiency.
Big Data into actionable insight
To comprehend the value of BDAC, it is vital to turn the data into actionable insights to reach better and optimized organization decisions and only 15% research articles focused on turning BDAC into action. Hence, the organization may depend upon many important factors which can be experimented in future research using framework of BDAC and OD.
Management attitude towards Big Data and its impact
Only 18% studies have confirmed that the organisation’s management normally decides to implement Big data, but does not fully support the capability on the decision-making process and the management use prediction technique over BDA result which has been studied and found in only 12% articles presented Management. The investment in BDA capabilities is affected by the disagreement of top management and very limited knowledge about BDA capabilities.
Organization value assessment with BDA
It is vital to establish the specific performance measure that relies on the number of contextual factors along with the area in which BDA deployed. Only 7% past selected articles viewed that Orgaisations are ready for BDA implementation but Organisations structure needs to be supportive to enable the realisation of more benefits of BDA.
Manyika et al. (2011) explained that big data analytics would help an organisation to improve decision making, minimise the risks and other valuable insight that would otherwise remain hidden. The authors also explained that using big data analytics could help in creating new innovative business model and can improve organisation’s performance.
The above analysed themes- 1) Resource concinnity of Big data analytics, 2) Big Data proficiencies, 3) Big Data into actionable insight, 4) Management attitude towards Big Data and its impact and 5) Organization value assessment with BDA presented the problems from the past literature which will be examining in the proposed research framework using four hypotheses.
The below theoretical model presents that organisational level as well as individual level is influenced by organisation climate, culture and capacity which can help to understand how BDA should be utilised to improve organisational performance as well as individuals.
4.5 Our interpretation through developing a new research model
This study interprets the findings of the literature review through a new research method development. One of the vital connections of BDA capability to resource based views was the main driving force here. BDA tools classified into three resources- tangible (financial and physical resource), human skills (employees’ knowledge and skills) and intangible (organisational culture and organisational learning) which has been used in the IS capacity literature (Grant 2010; Bharadwaj, 2000; Chae et al., 2014 and Santhanam & Hartono, 2003). Gupta & George (2016) explained how seven factors of three resources allow firms to create BDA capability.
To develop the robust model, the above three types of resources should be implemented in the organisation and make a contribution to the emergence of high order approach. This research model presents that BDAC enhances organisational development which strengthens the organisational strategies and the relationship between BD resources and OD. The below figure is a theoretical framework that illustrated how BDA resources influence the sustainability of innovation and organisational development (Hao, Zhang & Song, 2019)
Miller (2014) defined that data has become a strategic business asset and recommended for future research that Business and academia must participate to gain more knowledge about BD skills and capability across the organisation. The study concluded that every profession, whether business or technology will be impacted by big data and analytics. Gobble (2013), explored that the organisation should invent new technologies which provide necessary supplements to enhance the firm’s growth. Ann Keller et al. (2012), described that Big data is bringing a revolution in science and technology and recommended to take Big data challenge with the expectation of making a data-rich smart city. Galbraith (2014) explored how an organisation attempt to develop a BDAC, can encounter obstacles as well as opportunities. The past literature does not provide any observational publication that has bound Big data analytics capability and Organisational Development or adorned their interaction. There is very little empirical evidence on the agreement of OD and BDA or their characteristics and feature. So this research would be filling that gap by creating the below research model.
This proposed research model presents the direct connection between the BDAC and OD which has a direct effect on OD three concepts – Organisational Capacity, Organisational Culture, Organisational Climate, and their further resources. The research has proposed the following hypothesis which can be researched in future.
BDAC can help in any organisational development with implementing new technology tools. Extensive support for this relation can be found in related empirical studies on the effect of BDAC for improvement of organisation’s performance or development (Akter et al., 2016; Alkatheeri et al., 2020; Wang et al., 2016). From the preceding discussion, it is hypothesized that:
H1: There is a positive relationship between Organisational Development and BDAC.
The organisational capacity heavily relies on organisational development or in other words, organisational capacity (OC) is a resource of any organisation which requires development. Accordingly, with support of past studies on relationship between Organisational capacity and Organisational Development (Cummings & Worley, 2009; Glanz et al., 2008). Organisational development can improve Organisational capacity. Thus, it is hypothesized that:
H2: There is positive relationship between Organisational Development and Organisational Capability.
With the implementation or adoption of BDAC, Organisational culture is impacted. The above statement is supported by Schein (1985). Big data enables the organisation to diffuse their inefficient practices whether it is marketing, retails or media organisation. From the above discussion, it is hypothesized that:
H3: There is positive relationship between BDAC and Organisational Culture.
BDAC adoption can affect organisation’s Climate which are policies, practices and measure which are associated with an individual experience that is supported by (Schneider et al., 2013). In other words, BDAC can improve the business climate as well as individual’s performance.
From the above discussion, it is hypothesized that:
H4: There is positive relationship between BDAC and Organisational Climate.
This research is based on the requirement of developing a new framework in relation to Organisational Development theory because the modern organisation cannot ignore the involvement of BDA and its future learning and association with theoretical understanding. Therefore, this research paper aims to demonstrate current trends of different capabilities and a framework to understand BDAC in a better way for future research.