Patients with diffuse midline glioma (DMG) harboring H3 K27M mutation have no proven therapies beyond radiation. ONC201, a DRD2 antagonist and mitochondrial ClpP agonist, has induced early responses in patients with H3 K27M-mutant DMG. We performed an integrated pre-clinical and clinical assessment of ONC201 treatment, in order to define response rates in H3 K27M-mutant DMG patients and to clarify predictors of response. ONC201 was effective in murine H3 K27M-mutant gliomas with excellent CNS penetration and survival benefit. H3 K27M-mutant DMG patients treated with ONC201 on active clinical trials (n=50) showed significant survival benefit in recurrent and non-recurrent settings, with multiple sustained responses. Tumor sequencing from treated patients demonstrates an EGFR/FOXG1-driven telencephalic gene regulatory network that imparts a critical resistance phenotype to ONC201. Genetic and pharmacologic knockdown of EGFR in H3 K27M-mutant cell cultures results in improved sensitivity to ONC201 and reduced FOXG1 enhancer binding, suggesting possible future combinatorial opportunities.