The cerebellum is the central part of the major circuitry that links sensory areas to the motor areas of brain and functions in coordination of fine movements (1). In health, it provides connections during movement which is the basis for precision and accuracy and it is initially involved in motor learning and reflex modification according to Fine et al. (3). It is particularly one of the most vulnerable parts of the brain to neurotoxins and poisoning (1) and it forms the main target of drug exposure, drug abuse and environmental toxins (2). Researchers have shown that exposure of organs to tobacco and cigarettes are a major risk factor to various clinical conditions determining their functionality (4, 5) and one of the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world (6). Nicotine is one of the major constituents of tobacco which has been implicated to cause postural imbalance in smokers (7). Studies have shown that tobacco addiction and pattern of its usage is influenced by its nicotine content which is also used to aid smoking cessation pharmacologically (8). When the health impact is made known, most users desire to quit but it becomes difficult due to the addictiveness of nicotine (9). Nicotine replacement therapy is to temporarily replace it in tobacco consumption or to reduce tobacco intake, and thus ease transition from smoking cigarette to complete abstinence (10). Various alternative nicotine sources such as gum, transdermal patch, nasal spray, inhaler and sublingual tablets or lozenges incorporated into tobacco cessation programs and some of the side effects caused by nicotine are common to these products. Serious risks include continued addiction and nicotine poisoning (11). Adulthood exposure has been implicated in neurotoxicity and this is due to the ability of nicotine to generation of free radical in the cell (12).
A good diet is one of the best ways of promoting good health while a poor diet could cause various ailments (13). Despite cultural differences, there are some shared characteristics of healthy dietary patterns and natural medicinal products have been used for millennia in the treatment of numerous diseases (14) and of them, garlic and honey is one of the widely used natural products. A recent study has shown that combined effect of garlic and honey helps in the treatment of respiratory infections (13). Garlic (Allium sativum) as a phytomedicine is a specie in the onion genus and allium is one of the most researched plants, with a long history of medicinal uses (15). According to El Demerdash et al. (16), garlic contains sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, zinc ions, moderate amounts of selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C and small amounts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, vitamin B complex and allicin. Recent studies have shown that allicin contain anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects (17). Aqueous garlic extracts exerts its antioxidant action by enzymes, superoxidase dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and inhibits lipid peroxidation, which causes oxidative stress (18). However, honey has been considered to share some similar properties with garlic (13). Honey is the only insect-derived natural product, and it has nutritional, cosmetic, therapeutic and industrial values (19). Honey consists mainly of sugars and water with fructose as the most abundant sugar as well as vitamins – B complex, vitamin C, ascorbic acid, pantothenic acid, niacin and riboflavin; minerals include calcium, copper, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc (20, 21), amino acids, antibiotic-rich inhibine, proteins and phenol antioxidants (22, 23). It also contains other bioactive substances such as phenolic constituents, flavonoids, organic acids, carotenoid-derived compounds and nitric oxide metabolites (24). Studies have shown that the presence of many flavonoids, phenolic acids, ascorbic acid, tocophrenols, catalase, superoxidase dismutase, reduced glutathione, and peptides, work together to provide a synergist antioxidant effect (25, 26, 27). Research suggests that the polyphenol constituents of honey can quench biological reactive oxygen species and counter oxidative stress while restoring the cellular antioxidant defense system (28). The present study was designed to examine the effects of garlic and honey on nicotine induced toxicity on behavior and cerebellum of adult Wistar rats.