ABDULLAHI, A., HASSAN, A., KADARMAN, N., SALEH, A., BARAYA, Y. S. & LUA, P. L. 2016. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia. Int J Gen Med, 9, 79-87.
ABERA, B., BIADEGELGEN, F. & BEZABIH, B. 2010. Prevalence of Salmonella typhi and intestinal parasites among food handlers in Bahir Dar Town, Northwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 24.
ABERA K, ASHEBIR M, ADERAJEW A & ET AL 2006. The sanitary condition of food and drink establishments in Awash Sebat- Kilo, Afar region. Ethiop.J.Health Dev, 20, 201-203.
AFOLARANMI, T. O., HASSAN, Z. I., BELLO, D. A. & MISARI, Z. 2015. Knowledge and practice of food safety and hygiene among food vendors in primary schools in Jos, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. J Med Res, 4, 016-22.
AKABANDA, F., HLORTSI, E. H. & OWUSU-KWARTENG, J. 2017. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of institutional food-handlers in Ghana. BMC Public Health, 17, 40.
ARGUDIN, M. A., MENDOZA, M. C., GONZALEZ-HEVIA, M. A., BANCES, M., GUERRA, B. & RODICIO, M. R. 2012. Genotypes, exotoxin gene content, and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus strains recovered from foods and food handlers. Appl Environ Microbiol, 78, 2930-5.
AYALEW, H., BIRHANU, A. & ASRADE, B. 2013. Review on food safety system: Ethiopian perspective. Afr. J. Food Sci., 7, 431-440.
BAS, M., ERSUN, A. S. & KıVANC, G. 2006. The evaluation of food hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices of food handlers’ in food businesses in Turkey. Food control, 17, 317-322.
BEREDA, T. W., EMERIE, Y. M., RETA, M. A. & ASFAW, H. S. 2016. Microbiological safety of street vended foods in Jigjiga City, Eastern Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci., 26, 163-172.
BUCCHERI, C., CASUCCIO, A., GIAMMANCO, S., GIAMMANCO, M., LA GUARDIA, M. & MAMMINA, C. 2007. Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy. BMC health services research, 7, 45.
CAMPS, N., DOMINGUEZ, A., COMPANY, M., PEREZ, M., PARDOS, J., LLOBET, T., USERA, M. A. & SALLERAS, L. 2005. A foodborne outbreak of Salmonella infection due to overproduction of egg-containing foods for a festival. Epidemiol Infect, 133, 817-22.
CHEKOL, F. A., MELAK, M. F., BELEW, A. K. & ZELEKE, E. G. 2019. Food handling practice and associated factors among food handlers in public food establishments, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes, 12, 20.
COUTTS, S. P., STURGE, K., LALOR, K., MARSHALL, J. A., BRUGGINK, L. D., SUBASINGHE, N. & EASTON, M. 2017. An outbreak of foodborne norovirus gastroenteritis linked to a restaurant in Melbourne, Australia, 2014. Western Pac Surveill Response J, 8, 12-16.
DAGNEW, M., TIRUNEH, M., MOGES, F. & TEKESTE, Z. 2012. Survey of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working at Gondar University, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC public health, 12, 837.
DERSO, T., TARIKU, A., AMBAW, F., ALEMENHEW, M., BIKS, G. A. & NEGA, A. 2017. Socio-demographic factors and availability of piped fountains affect food hygiene practice of food handlers in Bahir Dar Town, northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Res Notes, 10, 628.
EL-SHENAWY, M., EL-HOSSEINY, L., TAWFEEK, M., EL-SHENAWY, M., BAGHDADI, H., SALEH, O., MANES, J. & SORIANO, J. 2013. Nasal carriage of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus and risk factors among food handlers-Egypt. Food and Public Health, 3, 284-288.
ELTAI, N. O., YASSINE, H. M., AL THANI, A. A., ABU MADI, M. A., ISMAIL, A., IBRAHIM, E. & ALALI, W. Q. 2018. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples of food handlers in Qatar. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control, 7, 78.
GETACHEW, M. 2016. Food safety practice and associated factors among food handlers in selected types of food establishments of Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. New York: FAO, 41.
GIZAW, Z. 2014a. Food safety practice and associated factors of food handlers working in substandard food establishments in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2013/14.
GIZAW, Z. G., M TEKA, Z 2014b. Food safety practice and associated factors of food handlers working in substandard food establishments in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2013/14. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. Diet, 3, 138-146.
GUMBO, A., BANGURE, D., GOMBE, N. T., MUNGATI, M., TSHIMANGA, M., HWALIMA, Z. & DUBE, I. 2015. Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning among Bulawayo City Council employees, Zimbabwe, 2014. BMC Res Notes, 8, 485.
HAVELAAR, A. H., CAWTHORNE, A., ANGULO, F., BELLINGER, D., CORRIGAN, T., CRAVIOTO, A., GIBB, H., HALD, T., EHIRI, J. & KIRK, M. 2013. WHO initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases. The Lancet, 381, S59.
HENSON, S. & HUMPHREY, J. 2009. The impacts of private food safety standards on the food chain and on public standard-setting processes. fao/who, 9.
IWU, A. C., UWAKWE, K. A., DURU, C. B., DIWE, K. C., CHINEKE, H. N., MERENU, I. A., OLUOHA, U. R., MADUBUEZE, U. C., NDUKWU, E. & OHALE, I. 2017. Knowledge, attitude and practices of food hygiene among food vendors in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine, 5, 11.
JORDA, G. B., MARUCCI, R. S., GUIDA, A. M., PIRES, P. S. & MANFREDI, E. A. 2012. [Carriage and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in food handlers]. Rev Argent Microbiol, 44, 101-4.
KAFERSTEIN FK 2003. Food safety the fourth pillar in the strategy to prevent infant diarrhea. Bull World Health Organ, 81, 842–3.
KASTURWAR NB & SHAFEE M 2011. Knowledge, practices and prevalence of mrsa among food handlers. Int J Biol Med Res, 2, 889–94.
KIBRET, M. & ABERA, B. 2012. The sanitary conditions of food service establishments and food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers in Bahir Dar town. Ethiopian journal of health sciences, 22, 27-35.
LEGESSE, D., TILAHUN, M., AGEDEW, E. & HAFTU, D. 2017. Food handling practices and associated factors among food handlers in arba minch town public food establishments in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Epidemiology (Sunnyvale), 7, 2161-1165.1000302.
LIN, S.-Y. & SNEED, J. 2003. University foodservice employees' food safety knowledge, attitudes, practices, and training. Citeseer.
LIU, Y., TAM, Y. H., YUAN, J., CHEN, F., CAI, W., LIU, J., MA, X., XIE, C., ZHENG, C., ZHUO, L., CAO, X., TAN, H., LI, B., XIE, H., LIU, Y. & IP, D. 2015. A Foodborne Outbreak of Gastroenteritis Caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Norovirus through Non-Seafood Vehicle. PLoS One, 10, e0137848.
MAMA, M. & ALEMU, G. 2016. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of Shigella and Salmonella among food handlers in Arba Minch University, South Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis, 16, 686.
MEAD PS, S. L., DIETZ V, MCCAIG LF, BRESEE JS, SHAPIRO C, GRIFFIN PM,TAUXE RV 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis, 5, 607.
MELEKO, A., HENOK, A., TEFERA, W. & LAMARO, T. 2015. Assessment of the sanitary conditions of catering establishments and food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers in Addis Ababa University Students’ Cafeteria. Science, 3, 733-43.
MELESE A, MEKONNIN T & ASHETE A 2018. The sanitary conditions of food and drink establishments in Woldia town, Northeastern Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Health Dev, 32, 189-196.
MENDEDO, E. K., BERHANE, Y. & HAILE, B. T. 2017. Factors associated with sanitary conditions of food and drinking establishments in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: cross-sectional study. Pan African Medical Journal, 28.
MOKHTARI, W., NSAIBIA, S., MAJOURI, D., BEN HASSEN, A., GHARBI, A. & AOUNI, M. 2012. Detection and characterization of Shigella species isolated from food and human stool samples in Nabeul, Tunisia, by molecular methods and culture techniques. J Appl Microbiol, 113, 209-22.
MUNOZ, A. B., CHAVES, J. A., RODRIGUEZ, E. C. & REALPE, M. E. 2013. [Listeria monocytogenes in food handlers: a new approach to address the dangers in food industry]. Biomedica, 33, 283-91.
NEE, S. O. & SANI, N. A. 2011. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among food handlers at residential colleges and canteen regarding food safety. Sains Malaysiana, 40, 403-410.
NIGUSSE, D. & KUMIE, A. 2012. Food hygiene practices and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers working in Mekelle university student’s cafeteria, Mekelle. Garjss, 1, 65-71.
NYGREN, B. L., SCHILLING, K. A., BLANTON, E. M., SILK, B. J., COLE, D. J. & MINTZ, E. D. 2013. Foodborne outbreaks of shigellosis in the USA, 1998-2008. Epidemiol Infect, 141, 233-41.
PARK, S.-H., KWAK, T.-K. & CHANG, H.-J. 2010. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations. Nutrition research and practice, 4, 58-68.
RALL, V. L., SFORCIN, J. M., AUGUSTINI, V. C., WATANABE, M. T., FERNANDES, A., JR., RALL, R., SILVA, M. G. & ARAUJO, J. P., JR. 2010. Detection of enterotoxin genes of Staphylococcus SP isolated from nasal cavities and hands of food handlers. Braz J Microbiol, 41, 59-65.
RYAN, M. J., WALL, P. G., GILBERT, R. J., GRIFFIN, M. & ROWE, B. 1996. Risk factors for outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease linked to domestic catering. Commun Dis Rep CDR Rev, 6, R179-83.
SAEED, H. A. & HAMID, H. H. 2010. Bacteriological and parasitological assessment of food handlers in the Omdurman area of Sudan. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 43, 70-73.
SANNEH, B., KEBBEH, A., JALLOW, H. S., CAMARA, Y., MWAMAKAMBA, L. W., CEESAY, I. F., BARROW, E., SOWE, F. O., SAMBOU, S. M., BALDEH, I., JALLOW, A., JORGE RAUL, M. A. & ANDREMONT, A. 2018. Prevalence and risk factors for faecal carriage of Extended Spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae among food handlers in lower basic schools in West Coast Region of The Gambia. PLoS One, 13, e0200894.
SCALLAN EHR, ANGULO FJ, TAUXE RV, WIDDOWSON M-A, ROY SL & JONES JL GP 2011. Foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States–major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis 17, 7-15.
SHARIF, L., OBAIDAT, M. M. & AL-DALALAH, M.-R. 2013. Food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of the food handlers in the military hospitals. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 4, 245.
SHIN, J., OH, S. S., OH, K. H., PARK, J. H., JANG, E. J., CHUNG, G. T., YOO, C. K., BAE, G. R. & CHO, S. H. 2015. An Outbreak of Foodborne Illness Caused by Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in a High School in South Korea. Jpn J Infect Dis, 68, 514-9.
SIMSEK, Z., KORUK, I., COPUR, A. C. & GURSES, G. 2009. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers in Sanliurfa, Southeastern Anatolia. J Public Health Manag Pract, 15, 518-23.
TESSEMA, A. G., GELAYE, K. A. & CHERCOS, D. H. 2014. Factors affecting food handling practices among food handlers of Dangila town food and drink establishments, North West Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 14, 571.
THELWELL-REID, M. A. 2014. Food safety knowledge and self-reported practices of food handlers in Jamaica.
WAKABAYASHI, Y., UMEDA, K., YONOGI, S., NAKAMURA, H., YAMAMOTO, K., KUMEDA, Y. & KAWATSU, K. 2018. Staphylococcal food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus argenteus harboring staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. Int J Food Microbiol, 265, 23-29.
WALKER, E., PRITCHARD, C. & FORSYTHE, S. 2003. Food handlers’ hygiene knowledge in small food businesses. Food Control, 14, 339-343.
WATTINGER, L., STEPHAN, R., LAYER, F. & JOHLER, S. 2012. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with food intoxication with isolates from human nasal carriers and human infections. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 31, 455-64.
WHO 1989. Health surveillance and management procedures for food-handling personnel: report of a WHO consultation [held in Geneva from 18 to 22 April 1988], World Health Organization.
WHO 2000. Foodborne disease: a focus for health education. In Foodborne disease: a focus for health education (pp.198-198).
WHO 2015. WHO estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases: foodborne disease burden epidemiology reference group 2007-2015. WHO.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION 2006. Five keys to safer food manual. Available at: www.who.int/entity/foodsafety/publications/consumer/manual_keys.pdf. Accessed 10 September 2020.
ZAIN, M. M. & NAING, N. N. 2002. Sociodemographic characteristics of food handlers and their knowledge, attitude and practice towards food sanitation: a preliminary report. Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, 33, 410-417.
ZANIN, L. M., DA CUNHA, D. T., DE ROSSO, V. V., CAPRILES, V. D. & STEDEFELDT, E. 2017. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers in food safety: An integrative review. Food Res Int, 100, 53-62.