The global trade of solar photovoltaic (PV) products substantially contributes to the increases in solar power generation and carbon emission reduction. This paper depicts the global PV product trade patterns and explores the emissions reduction potential, evaluates the impeding effect of tariff barriers on global PV product trade and the emissions reduction. In 2014 and 2017, the application of traded solar cells and modules resulted in emissions reductions of up to 840.71 and 1,734.59 Mt CO2e as well as substantial reductions in local pollutants. From 2017 to 2050, traded solar cells and modules will result in an approximately 55.76-86.45 Gt CO2e reduction. Extra-tariff imposition in its worst situation will result in global PV applications decreasing by 7.06% and carbon emissions mitigation potential decreasing by 5.09-7.89 Gt CO2e by 2050. Well-coordinated policy and institutional reforms are recommended to facilitate PV product trade and deliver related global and local environmental benefits.