Background: Bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur around the stem decreases due to stress shielding after cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). When severe stress shielding occurs, the risk of periprosthetic femoral fractures increases, and this bone loss can also increase the difficulty of future revision THA. Denosumab is known to improve the quality and strength of cortical bone in the proximal femurs of patients with osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether denosumab prevents loss of proximal femoral periprosthetic BMD in cementless THA using a tapered wedge stem in patients with osteoporosis.
Methods: Sixty-three consecutive patients who had undergone unilateral primary THA using a tapered wedge stem were included in this retrospective study. Twenty-four patients who received denosumab for osteoporosis were the denosumab group, and the 39 without denosumab were the control group. At 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after THA, bone turnover markers and femoral periprosthetic BMD were measured.
Results: BMD in zone 1 was significantly increased from baseline at both 6 and 12 months after THA in the denosumab group and significantly decreased in the control group. BMD in zone 7 was significantly decreased compared to baseline at both 6 and 12 months after THA in the control group, but not in the denosumab group. The use of denosumab for THA patients with osteoporosis was independently related to preventing loss of periprosthetic BMD of the femur at 12 months after surgery in zones 1 and 7 on multivariate analysis.
Conclusions: Denosumab significantly increased proximal femoral periprosthetic BMD in zone 1 and prevented loss of BMD in zone 7 in patients with osteoporosis after cementless THA using a tapered wedge stem at both 6 and 12 months after surgery.