Efficient exploitation of geothermal energy is a hot issue concerned by scientific and engineering circles. The layout of different injection wells and production wells directly affects the temperature field of production wells and rock mass. In order to study the thermal recovery efficiency under different geothermal well layout conditions, based on the conceptual model of two injection wells and two production wells, a 3DEC program is used to calculate and analyze the influence of the different water inlet and water inlet of two injection wells and two production wells on the temperature field of rock mass, geothermal wells and the water temperature of production wells outlet. The results show that: (1) After the model injection wells are switched with the production wells, the temperature gradients of rock mass, production wells and injection wells are almost the same in numerical value and opposite in direction. (2) Production wells are set on the left side and injection wells are set on the right side of the model, and the injection wells and production wells are set at intervals; The temperature field of rock mass on both sides of the edge forms a central symmetry; The temperature gradient of rock mass from the middle to the edge is smaller and smaller, which indicates that the heat transfer speed of rock mass from the middle to the edge is slower and slower. Because the thermal superposition of adjacent injection wells and production wells through the rock mass between them is dominant, the water temperature at the outlet of production wells is the highest; In the interval water injection well and production well, the heat convection between water flow and rock is dominant, which makes the water temperature of production well outlet drops. (3) According to the water temperature at the outlet of production well, the optimal order of the model is working condition 3 > working condition 1 = working condition 2 > working condition 4, and the time to reach a steady state is the shortest in working condition 3 and the longest in working condition 4. The research results can provide important theoretical and practical reference for optimizing the layout of geothermal wells in efficient geothermal exploitation.