Elections are crucial in our democratic country because they allow citizens to choose a government leader. The world's voting system has been riddled with numerous fundamental flaws, resulting in a corrupt candidate winning an election. The election malpractices observed at various levels of electing a representative have caused researchers to be emotionally, physically, socially, and intellectually concerned. Using a traditional election system to collect votes from citizens is no longer considered efficient due to unreliability (Shahzad, 2019)- (Yang, 2018). The paper-based voting system is the traditional style of voting that contains many disadvantages. As technology is advanced, we need to update our voting system to improve reliability, trust, and convenience. For this purpose, the electronic voting system was introduced. The electronic voting system is also known as e-voting. It is a voting procedure that uses electronic means to take care of casting and counting votes (Srikrishnaswetha, 2019)- (Yi, 2013).
In 2000, Optical scan voting systems were used for counting elections using the Data Reduction software (DRS) to cover documents, process integration e-form capture, and document retrieval) plc of Milton Keynes in London. In 2004, Optical character recognition (OCR) is an electronically identify the printed characters or photos using computer software or photoelectric devices) were used to scan and processed assembly and European parliamentary elections of London Mayoral (Kumar, 2012). In 2007, the Scottish council and parliament general elections were used an optical scan voting system to count paper ballots electronically. After counting, UK electoral commission generated a report of errors in voting procedure there were more than 150,000 votes are invalid or spoilt. So, 56000 list ballots and 86000 constituency ballots were rejected. Due to the reason that voters have to cast vote for both sections on a single ballot paper. Due to this reason Scottish parliamentary and council elections were used different electronic techniques for their voting system (Mithe, 2013).
Many different countries are using different types of electronic machines for their voting process. The Election Commission of Dhaka recently presented security features to the tribunes of DHAKA and provided information on the use of Electronic Voting Machines. The Election Commission of DHAKA claims that the Electronic Voting Machine is impossible to hack because of its multiple layers of security (Irani, 2018)- (Nair, 2015). In 2014, Virendar Kumar Yadav presented a study on Electronic Voting System using UIdAI (Unique Identification Authority of India), It is a Governmental agency of India which assigns a unique 12-digit identity number to each voter. In this paper, they presented a study about an approach towards an Electronic Voting system that ensures authentication, authorization, and accounting using UIDAI. In their work, their system takes information from UIDAI in the electronic system. They designed four main stages of the system: Registration, Electorate information pages, Electorate voting phase, and Completion phase (Yadav, 2014)- (Vidyasree, P and Raju, S Viswanadha and Madhavi, G, 2016).
In 2017, Alexander Schneider presented a study on Remote Electronic Voting. In this survey, they discussed the schemas, attacks, and systems of remote electronic voting. According to this survey, the system should be available, integrated, and perform all the functions correctly such as counting, eligibility of voters, fairness, voter-verifiable, robustness, and Receipt freeness to reduce coercion. There are a lot of attack vendors and these attacks should be considered during the design of an electronic voting system (Sridharan, 2013). The electronic voting machine will increase voter participation. Elections will be fair by using Electronic Voting Machine. It refuses the frauds. If a vote has been correctly cast by the voter, he/she will receive confirmation. Votes can be count precisely and quickly and these systems can be implemented in large-scale elections such as presidential elections (Schneider, 2017). In 2016, a study about the Secure Online Voting System is presented. They discussed the different online voting systems based on homomorphic encryption, blind signature. The user does the registration process first. All the information has been sent to the authentication server. The server sends login to the voter. If this login is authenticated then the user is allowed to cast the vote and this system provides a secure casting system (Khairnar, 2016).
In 2017, a study on Biometrically Secured Electronic Voting Machine is presented in which the study on a fingerprint-based voting system is done. Each user vote has been verified using a fingerprint. Moreover, the user can also change the vote, if the vote is given to the wrong candidate. The controller unit of the whole system was Arduino. All the working of the voting system was displayed on LCD (Rezwan, 2017). In 2017, M.A Hosany presented a study on the Design and implementation of an online voting system for the election of students of the University of Mauritius. They designed a system that acted as client/server architecture. Their system comprised a web application, mobile client application, server application, and central database (Hosany, 2017)- (Hazzaa, 2012).
In 2018, a study on Blockchain-enabled E-voting is presented in which the BEV provide each voter a “wallet” that contain user credential. Employees of BEV have an encrypted key and also have temper proof personal IDs, e.g. Mobile E-voting platform based on Boston startup have real-time ID and smart biometric. Hackers can be attacked on blocks before introducing new blocks, blocks are files with transaction records. Blockchain ensures that no block can be removed or changed. Temper-proof audit trails can be created by enabling Blockchains. It generates cryptography to keep records secure (Kshetri, 2018)- (Peck, 2015). The limitations of wired electronic voting are resolved by using a radio frequency identification (RFID) based electronic voting machine (EVM) with a fingerprint module. The voters will be authenticated using the fingerprint module. All voter information, including fingerprints, will be maintained in the database. The database is stored on the microcontroller. During polling, the microcontroller validates the voter by checking the database (Malathy, 2020).
A hacking system is presented in this research work is a simple GUI application that is based on JAVA and the whole software contains about 2000 lines of code. The GUI interface provides the user with easy to use and friendly interface for the voting process as this machine record the votes. After authentication of the user with the 4-digit pin, the machine allows the voter to cast a vote (Bannet, 2004)- (Kaliyamurthie, 2013). In this century, the fingerprint is a very useful method to recognize humans; automated biometric systems are used in recent years, with the help of it, work implemented and evaluated successfully. Results were comparable and significant. This proved that the recognition using fingerprint will be enhanced and improved the verification procedure because fingerprint has acceptance with the law enforcement, the forensic science community, and the general public, they will be utilized new systems that will require a biometric system in it. With the help of biometric procedures, there are high chances for fair elections (Mahajan, 2018)- (Nithya, 2016).
The paper-Based Voting system was a traditional way of voting but due to its unreliability and inefficiency, a new way of voting was introduced known as Electronic Voting and Internet Voting. It will increase voter participation. Elections will be fair by using Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) as it refuses the frauds. If a vote has been correctly cast by the voter, he/she will receive confirmation and votes can be count precisely and quickly. The proposed objectives of this research work are
Using a Local/Centralized server.
Encrypting traffic to/from a centralized server.
Making the voting system more secure, reliable, faster, cost & time efficient.
Maintain security using cryptography.
Printing Form-45 on completion of the election.
Development of software for Voting.
The electronic voting system is more efficient than our traditional style to cast votes (Adekunle, 2020). An electronic Voting Machine ensures flawless voting. This user-friendly electronic voting machine will be cost-efficient as well as time-efficient too.
The overview of the proposed EVM in Fig. 1 consists of four blocks. Fingerprint Scanner will scan the voter’s finger and pass the result to the software. The software will verify the user’s identity using this fingerprint. QR code scanner will scan the voter’s national identity card commonly known as CNIC. The QR code scanner will share a 25-digit string with the software. The software will parse this string and after parsing store the 13-digit string. This 13-digit string will be compared with the database to get the identity of the user. The Centralized Server will have complete data of voters. All the voting data will also be stored on a centralized server and the server traffic will be encrypted using SSL. The Local System will contain other parts like a fingerprint scanner and QR code scanner that will communicate with a centralized database and our frontend application will be running at Local System.