Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis which affects medium-sized arteries. Although diagnostic and classification criteria exist, differentiation from other diseases can be difficult.
Case Presentation: We present a 3-year old patient with a diagnosis of complete KD with positivity for urine-PCR on leptospirosis.
In our patient conjunctivitis, rash, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, palmar swelling, exanthema were seen, indicating all criteria for complete KD. After 2 weeks periungual desquamation developed. Besides this patient two further cases were retrieved form the literature with similar clinical courses indicating leptospirosis associated KD.
Conclusion: These cases indicate that leptospirosis may not only mimic but also be associated with KD shown by specific findings like desquamation of fingers, toes and oropharyngeal mucous membrane changes. To distinguish between KD, leptospirosis and leptospirosis associated KD a proper history taking including travel history and contact to animals is fundamental as well as thorough clinical and cardiac examinations in the course of the disease. While diagnostic procedures and observation might take time, treatment of acute KD should not be delayed.