Understanding past changes in the characteristics of climate extremes (such as frequency, intensity, and duration) forms an essential part of viable countermeasures to cope with climate-induced risks under a rapidly warming world. Thus, this paper endeavored to explore possible non-monotonic trend components in heavy rainfall events over the Central Highlands of Vietnam by employing the Şen’s innovative trend analysis (ITA) method in conjunction with the well-defined extreme rainfall indices developed by the Joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The outcomes show that the overall trends in most extreme rainfall indices exhibited significant increases at several stations. Moreover, the high-value subgroups of most analyzed indices (such as maximum 5-day precipitation amount (Rx5day), simple daily intensity index (SDII), very wet days (R95p), extremely wet days (R99p), number of extremely heavy precipitation days (R50mm), and consecutive dry days (CDD)) were characterized mainly by significant increasing trends, thereby implying that heavy rainfall events have become more frequent and intense over recent decades. Some stations also exposed significant increasing trend behaviors in a given extreme index within all low-, medium-, and high-value subgroups. In general, it is expected that these findings yield more insightful knowledge on rainfall extremes to local decision-makers and other stakeholders.