Background and objectives
Study of respiratory variations in mitral valve (MV) Doppler flow in hemodialysis (HD) patients has not been investigated and normal adult referenced echocardiographic value is used as an echocardiographic reference to HD patients who have unique hemodynamic. This work aimed to study the respiratory variation in MV Doppler flow in HD patients to determine if it has a unique pattern in these patients, and to study any relation between this variation and volume-related parameters.
We conducted a prospective cohort study, carried out on 118 patients who underwent regular HD. A standard echocardiography was performed on the patients before and within 6 hs after dialysis. During quiet breathing, the transmitral spectral Doppler E wave was measured during inspiratory and expiratory phases using plethysmography breath-cycle chest-adhesive electrodes. The mathematic differences and the percent changes (ventricular interdependent; VI) in E wave were calculated pre-and post-dialysis. Post dialysis difference in the percent changes (∆ E wave % changes) was calculated as follows: pre-dialysis percent changes of E wave – post dialysis percent changes of E wave/pre dialysis percent changes E wave x 100.
The means of the mathematic differences between the MV inspiratory and expiratory E pre-and post-dialysis were 0.07 ± 0.18 m/s and 0.08 ± 0.22 m/s respectively with an insignificant difference between both phases; p = 0.337. Meanwhile, the means of the percent variation in the MV inspiratory and expiratory E pre-and post-dialysis were 56 ± 7 % and 44 ± 1.1 % respectively, with a significant reduction after dialysis; P = 0.000. Spearman correlation showed a significant positive correlation between post- dialysis ∆ E wave % change and post-dialysis % change of weight (r = 0.318; P = 0.000). Moreover, post- dialysis % change of weight and post- dialysis % changes of most other volume-related variable were independent predictors of post- dialysis ∆ E wave % in HD patients.
The pre- and post- dialysis respiratory changes in the MV E wave in HD patients were higher than the normal adult referenced values. This marked variation could be explained by the unique overloading condition and could explain the LV diastolic dysfunction and the unexplained pulmonary hypertension in HD patients.