The study is conducted in Debrebirhan University which is established in 1999 E.c. Debrebirhan is located on 130 km away from Addis Ababa in North Shoa Amhara regional state.
Debrebirhan University is among 3rd generation universities, those newly started education as university. Currently there are a total of 6 (six) faculties and 51 (fifty one) departments for regular under graduate studies and 6 (six) post graduate programme. The total student population in 2013 E.C is 6953 with number of male being 4442 and 2511 female students. This figure indicates only regular students.
The study was conducted from April to June 2013 E.C.
Institutional based cross-sectional study design was used to assess prevalence and associated factors to depression among DebreBirhanuniversity students.
Study Population and source population
All students who are registered in DebreBirhan University in 2013 E.C is the source population.
Students who are registered as regular under graduate class and who fulfill inclusion criteria
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Students who were sick to the extent of unable to read and write during data collection, summer, extension, distant education students, post graduate students, student who were absent during date of data collection and students found out of main campus were excluded from the study.
Sample Size Determination
Sample size is determined using single population proportion formula taking the prevalence of depression at Ambo University (32.2%) .Where: n = sample size
P = prevalence of health and health related problems
q = 1-p
d = desired degree of precision
Z= is the standard normal value at the level of confidence desired; at 95%
- Considering 95% CI and 5% margin of error
- Precision of 0.05
- Prevalence of depression at Ambo University (32.2%). (18)
ni=Z (1.96)2*0.322 (1-0.322)/0.052
=Z (1.96)2*0.322 (0.678)/0.0025
By adding 10% non-response rate the final sample size will be 369
Simple random sampling technique is used to select participants. A list of regular undergraduate students from the registrar is prepared by their ID number. Then after sample size was proportionally allocated for each facility. Then 369 students were finally selected in each faculty using lottery method in each faculty. .
The Dependent Variable
Socio demographic characteristics including age, sex, year of enrollment, faculty, residency of parents of the study subject, marital status and monthly income. Substance use including: use of chat, alcohol, cigarette smoking.
According to this study the existence and prevalence of depression is determined by PHQ-9 depression questionnaire.
- PHQ-9 scores ≥10 indicating a student is having depression disorder.
- PHQ-9 scores less than 10 indicating a student is not having depression disorder.
- We use also depression score as:
Mild: PHQ-9 scores of 5 to 9
Moderate: PHQ-9 scores of 10 to 14
Moderately severe: PHQ-9 scores of 15 to 19
Severe: PHQ-9 scores of ≥20
Data collection instrument
Depression screening instruments include the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care (BDI-PC), and the 5-Item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5).Factors which to use include the number of questions, scoring and ease of interpretation, and reading level required. [25, 26]
The PHQ-9 which has been validated in multiple studies has been found to be acceptable and is as good as longer clinician-administered instruments in a range of settings, countries, and populations. The PHQ-9 is more accurate than other screens with sensitivity 88 percent and specificity of 88 percent. [28-31]
The PHQ-9 is scored 0 to 27, with scores ≥10 indicating a possible depressive disorder. 
Data analysis and management
First the data was entered into in Epidata 3.1 and then exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Data was sorted, frequency ordered and checked for completeness and acceptability.
A necessary correction was made on error observations by cross checking with the questionnaire. 5 % of random cases are checked with the original data for consistency. Incomplete questionnaires was excluded from analysis.
Both descriptive and inferential statistics is computed as appropriate. The demographic characteristics of participants is computed by using descriptive statistics like mean, percentage, frequencies, and standard deviation.
PHQ-9 scores is added and categorized as two output based on cut point of 10 to determine as students is having depression or not as PHQ-9 standard. Then to determine factors associated with depression bivariate binary logistic regression and multivariate stepwise logistic regression was applied.
To increase the power all variables with p value of less than 0.25 in bivariate analysis are candidate for multivariate analysis. The final decision on association of independent variables with dependent variable is based on only with adjusted odds ratio.
Data quality control
The data collectors are representatives of class room in selected participant’s class room. Detail orientation was given and procedure of data collection is demonstrated and practiced. During data collection investigator was monitoring as data is collected in right way. There was regular and close communication between investigator and data collectors. Incomplete, inaccurate filling on questionnaire was not included in analysis.
Dissemination of the result
The finding of the study will be given to DebreBirhan university school of public health, college of medicine, concerned bodies working in the university and health science library trough copy of printed document. The finding will also be communicated to the scientific world by publishing in journal.
Ethical clearance letter was first obtained from DebreBirhan university school of public health. Then ethical clearance paper is presented for student council, registrar to get cooperation.
Participants were told as they have full right to stop filling questionnaire any time if they do not want to participate. Confidentiality was assured by making the questionnaire anonymous.
Participation was based on willingness after consent is obtained. There is no harm with participation in this research. Individual who fulfill criteria for depression will be notified to visit clinic.