1 Sallam M. COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Worldwide: A Concise Systematic Review of Vaccine Acceptance Rates. Vaccines 2021; 9: 160.
2 Bono SA, Faria de Moura Villela E, Siau CS, et al. Factors Affecting COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance: An International Survey among Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Vaccines 2021; 9: 515.
3 Lazarus JV, Ratzan SC, Palayew A, et al. A global survey of potential acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. Nature Medicine 2020; : 1–4.
4 Neumann-Böhme S, Varghese NE, Sabat I, et al. Once we have it, will we use it? A European survey on willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Eur J Health Econ 2020; 21: 977–82.
5 Wong MCS, Wong ELY, Huang J, et al. Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine based on the health belief model: A population-based survey in Hong Kong. Vaccine 2021; published online Jan 6. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.12.083.
6 Anderson RM, Vegvari C, Truscott J, Collyer BS. Challenges in creating herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection by mass vaccination. The Lancet 2020; 396: 1614–6.
7 Britton T, Ball F, Trapman P. A mathematical model reveals the influence of population heterogeneity on herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Science 2020; 369: 846–9.
8 Hodgson D, Flasche S, Jit M, Kucharski AJ, Group CC-19 W. The potential for vaccination-induced herd immunity against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant. Eurosurveillance 2021; 26: 2100428.
9 Allington D, Duffy B, Wessely S, Dhavan N, Rubin J. Health-protective behaviour, social media usage and conspiracy belief during the COVID-19 public health emergency. Psychological Medicine undefined/ed; : 1–7.
10 Ebrahimi OV, Johnson MS, Ebling S, et al. Risk, Trust, and Flawed Assumptions: Vaccine Hesitancy During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Front Public Health 2021; 0. DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2021.700213.
11 Freeman D, Loe BS, Chadwick A, et al. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the UK: the Oxford coronavirus explanations, attitudes, and narratives survey (Oceans) II. Psychological Medicine 2021; : 1–15.
12 Pogue K, Jensen JL, Stancil CK, et al. Influences on Attitudes Regarding Potential COVID-19 Vaccination in the United States. Vaccines 2020; 8: 582.
13 Rhodes A, Hoq M, Measey M-A, Danchin M. Intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 in Australia. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2020; 0. DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30724-6.
14 Malik A, McFadden S, Elharake J, Omer SB. Determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in the US. EClinicalMedicine 2020; 26: 100495–100495.
15 Peretti-Watel P, Seror V, Cortaredona S, et al. A future vaccination campaign against COVID-19 at risk of vaccine hesitancy and politicisation. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2020; 20: 769–70.
16 Murphy J, Vallières F, Bentall RP, et al. Psychological characteristics associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and resistance in Ireland and the United Kingdom. Nature Communications 2021; 12: 29.
17 Brewer NT, Chapman GB, Gibbons FX, Gerrard M, McCaul KD, Weinstein ND. Meta-analysis of the relationship between risk perception and health behavior: the example of vaccination. Health Psychol 2007; 26: 136–45.
18 Schmid P, Rauber D, Betsch C, Lidolt G, Denker M-L. Barriers of Influenza Vaccination Intention and Behavior - A Systematic Review of Influenza Vaccine Hesitancy, 2005-2016. PLoS One 2017; 12: e0170550.
19 Yarkoni T, Westfall J. Choosing Prediction Over Explanation in Psychology: Lessons From Machine Learning. Perspect Psychol Sci 2017; 12: 1100–22.
20 Jaya ES, Ascone L, Lincoln TM. Social Adversity and Psychosis: The Mediating Role of Cognitive Vulnerability. Schizophr Bull 2017; 43: 557–65.
21 Wise J. Covid-19: How AstraZeneca lost the vaccine PR war. BMJ 2021; 373: n921.
22 Bloomfield PS, Magnusson J, Walsh M, Naylor A. Communicating public health during COVID-19, implications for vaccine rollout. Big Data & Society 2021; 8: 20539517211023536.
23 Dyer O. Covid-19: Vaccine doses expire in US as uptake falls by 68%. BMJ 2021; 373: n1536.
24 Delhey J, Newton K. Who trusts?: The origins of social trust in seven societies. European Societies 2003; 5: 93–137.
25 Daenekindt S, van der Waal J, de Koster W. Social mobility and political distrust: cults of gratitude and resentment? Acta Polit 2018; 53: 269–82.
26 MISHLER W, ROSE R. What Are the Origins of Political Trust?: Testing Institutional and Cultural Theories in Post-communist Societies. Comparative Political Studies 2001; 34: 30–62.
27 Torcal M. The Decline of Political Trust in Spain and Portugal: Economic Performance or Political Responsiveness? American Behavioral Scientist 2014; 58: 1542–67.
28 Knobloch-Westerwick S, Mothes C, Polavin N. Confirmation Bias, Ingroup Bias, and Negativity Bias in Selective Exposure to Political Information. Communication Research 2020; 47: 104–24.
29 Commissioners of the Lancet Commission on Vaccine Refusal, Acceptance, and Demand in the USA. Announcing the Lancet Commission on Vaccine Refusal, Acceptance, and Demand in the USA. Lancet 2021; 397: 1165–7.
30 Cardenas NC. ‘Europe and United States vaccine hesitancy’: leveraging strategic policy for ‘Infodemic’ on COVID-19 vaccines. Journal of Public Health 2021; published online June 17. DOI:10.1093/pubmed/fdab228.
31 Chou W-YS, Budenz A. Considering Emotion in COVID-19 Vaccine Communication: Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy and Fostering Vaccine Confidence. Health Communication 2020; 35: 1718–22.
32 Kingston J, Schlier B, Gaudiano BA, et al. The Pandemic-Paranoia Scale (PPS): Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance across Languages. under review.
33 Wong LP, Alias H, Wong P-F, Lee HY, AbuBakar S. The use of the health belief model to assess predictors of intent to receive the COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to pay. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 2020; 16: 2204–14.
34 Shevlin M, Nolan E, Owczarek M, et al. COVID-19-related anxiety predicts somatic symptoms in the UK population. British Journal of Health Psychology 2020; 25: 875–82.
35 Shapiro GK, Holding A, Perez S, Amsel R, Rosberger Z. Validation of the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale. Papillomavirus Res 2016; 2: 167–72.
36 Freeman D, Loe BS, Kingdon D, et al. The revised Green et al., Paranoid Thoughts Scale (R-GPTS): psychometric properties, severity ranges, and clinical cut-offs. Psychological Medicine 2019; : 1–10.
37 Bruder M, Haffke P, Neave N, Nouripanah N, Imhoff R. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire. Front Psychol 2013; 4. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00225.
38 Fowler D, Freeman D, Smith B, et al. The Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS): Psychometric properties and associations with paranoia and grandiosity in non-clinical and psychosis samples. Psychological Medicine 2006; 36: 749–59.
39 Allan S, Gilbert P. A social comparison scale: Psychometric properties and relationship to psychopathology. Personality and Individual Differences 1995; 19: 293–9.
40 IBM Corp. SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp., 2013.
41 Pedregosa F, Varoquaux G, Gramfort A, et al. Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python. Journal of Machine Learning Research 2011; 12: 2825–30.
42 Breiman L. Random forests. Machine Learning 2001; 45: 5–32.