Magnetic-domain structure and dynamics play an important role in understanding and controlling the magnetic properties of two-dimensional magnets, which are of interest to both fundamental studies and applications. However, the probe methods based on the spin-dependent optical permeability and electrical conductivity can neither provide quantitative information of the magnetization nor achieve nanoscale spatial resolution. These capabilities are essential to image and understand the rich properties of magnetic domains. Here, we employ cryogenic scanning magnetometry using a single-electron spin of a nitrogen-vacancy center in a diamond probe to unambiguously prove the existence of magnetic domains and study their dynamics in atomically thin CrBr3. The high spatial resolution of this technique enables imaging of magnetic domains and allows to resolve domain walls pinned by defects. By controlling the magnetic domain evolution as a function of magnetic field, we find that the pinning effect is a dominant coercivity mechanism with a saturation magnetization of about 26μB/nm2 for bilayer CrBr3. The magnetic-domain structure and pinning-effect dominated domain reversal process are verified by micromagnetic simulation. Our work highlights scanning nitrogen-vacancy center magnetometry as a quantitative probe to explore two-dimensional magnetism at the nanoscale.