Understanding the response process of the soil moisture of different vegetation types to rainfall in karst regions in winter is of great significance to the implementation of various ecological restoration projects. However, at present, the related research is mainly focused on nonwinter seasons, so there is less winter research. Therefore, in this study, in Guanling County, Anshun City, southwestern Guizhou Province, four types of vegetation, grassland, arable land, shrubland, and forestland, were selected as sample plots, and the degree、time and speed responses of the soil moisture of the vegetation types to rainfall were calculated using the time series data of the soil moisture of different vegetation types. The results showed that among the four kinds of vegetation in karst regions in winter, the response degree of the grassland soil moisture to rainfall was largest, response duration was longest, and response speed was fastest. Also, the increment of the soil moisture in the adjacent arable land soil layers significantly changed. In addition, in light rain events, only the soil moisture of the grassland and arable land responded. Overall, in this study, quantitative indices were used to illustrate the response process of soil moisture to rainfall for different vegetation types under the humid climate type of the mid-subtropical zone in pure limestone slope lands, thus enriching relevant knowledge systems and providing more scientific bases for the implementation of ecological restoration projects in karst areas.