Composite filaments consisting of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and micro crystalline cellulose (MCC) were successfully used for additive manufacturing (AM) by fused filament fabrication (FFF). PLA and MCC bio-composites were obtained by direct mixing in a melt compounder; maleic anhydride (MAH) was also grafted onto PLA in reactive mixing stage to evaluate its effect on the final properties of the printed material. Filaments with various concentrations of MCC (up to a maximum content of 10 wt%) were produced with a single screw extruder and used to feed a commercial desktop FFF printer. Upon grafting of PLA with MAH, a more coherent interfacial morphology between PLA and MCC was detected by electron microscopy analysis. The thermal degradation of the PLA was unaffected by the presence of MCC and MAH. According to differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis results, micro-cellulose acted as nucleating agent for PLA. In fact, the crystallization peak shifted towards lowers temperature and a synergistic effect when MCC was added to PLA grafted with MAH was observed possibly due to the increase of the chain mobility. Micro cellulose led to an increase in the stiffness of the material in both filaments and 3D printed specimen, however, a different fracture behavior was observed due to the peculiar structure of printed samples.