Recurrent bacterial infections are a major health burden worldwide, yet the mechanisms dictating host susceptibility to recurrence are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that an initial bacterial infection of the urinary bladder with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) can induce sustained epigenetic changes in the bladder epithelial (urothelial) stem cells that reprogram the differentiated urothelium. We established urothelial stem cell (USC) lines from isogenic mice with different urinary tract infection histories (naïve, chronic or self-resolving). Differentiation of the USC lines in Transwell culture resulted in polarized urothelial cultures that recapitulated distinct remodeling morphologies seen in vivo. In addition, we discovered differences in chromatin accessibility that segregated by disease history, resulting in differences in gene expression upon differentiation of the USC lines in vitro, based on ATAC-seq analysis of the USC lines. Differential basal expression of Caspase-1 led to divergent susceptibilities to inflammatory cell death upon UPEC infection. In mice with a history of chronic infection, enhanced caspase 1-mediated inflammatory cell death was found to be a protective response that enhanced bacterial clearance upon challenge infection. Thus, UPEC infection reshapes the epigenome leading to epithelial-intrinsic remodeling that trains the mucosal immune response to subsequent infection. These findings may have broad implications for the prevention of chronic/recurrent bacterial infections.