Purpose To develop an immunotype-based prognostic model for predicting the overall survival (OS) of patients with clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC). We explored novel immunotypes of patients with ccRCC, particularly those associated with overall survival. A risk-metastasis model was constructed by integrating the immunotypes with immune genes and used to test the accuracy of the immunotype model.
Patients and Methods Patient cohort data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, Renji database, and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We employed the R software to select 3 immune cells and construct an immunotype-based prediction model. Immune genes selected using random Forest Algorithm were validated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The H&L risk-metastasis model was constructed to assess the accuracy of the immunotype model through Multivariate COX regression analysis.
Result Patients with ccRCC were categorized into immunotype H subgroup and immunotype L subgroup based on the overall survival rates. The immunotypes were found to be the independent prognostic index for ccRCC prognosis. As such, we constructed a new immunotypes-based SSIGN model. Three immune genes associated with difference between immunotype H and L were identified. An H&L risk-metastasis model was constructed to evaluate the accuracy of the immunotype model. Compared to the W-Risk-metastasis model which did not incorporate immunotypes, the H&L risk-metastasis model was more precise in predicting the survival of ccRCC patients.
Conclusion The established immunotype model can effectively predict the survival of ccRCC patients. Except for mast cells, T cells and macrophages are positively associated with the overall survival of patients. The three immune genes identified, herein, can predict the survival rate of ccRCC patients, and expression of these immune genes is strongly linked to poor survival. The new SSIGN model provides an accurate tool for predicting the survival of ccRCC patients. H&L risk-metastasis model can effectively predict the risk of tumor metastasis.