Bats are a very poorly studied group of mammals in Pakistan. In the current study, we studied bats of Bajaur Agency, FATA region of Pakistan. The genetic identification and phylogenetic analysis are an obscured issue in chiropteran taxonomy as no molecular record for bats is available in Pakistan. This is the first attempt to describe the genetics of Rhyneptesicus nasutus from Pakistan. The study area is a hilly area which is not easily modified as compared to plain areas for construction activities that is why these flying creatures i.e., bats are surviving in these areas easily. Due to the non-availability of taxonomic position and data about the genus Rhyneptesicus, the data we collected during this work leads us to draw any conclusions about this genus. We captured different bats species from the study area. But here we just presented the Rhyneptesicus nasutus species. The previous records of Rhyneptesicus nasutus: Sind Serotine bat Vesperugo (Vesperus) nasutus (Dobson, 1877: 311) has been reported from Shikarpur, Sind, Pakistan and according to Blanford, 1888-91 type locality should be a little east of Rohri'  but the recent record from Bajaur agency FATA, Pakistan highlights the range extension of Sindh bat as this bat species has not been reported by anyone from this area. This report of Rhyneptesicus from Bajaur Agency might be by its migration from Afghanistan area or it may be local resident in Bajaur. Here, we will also highlight the difference in weather conditions of Bajaur Agency which is the hilly area while the Shikarpur, Sind, is a plain area where it was reported by Blanford, 1888-91. It also suggests that a detailed study on the comparison of ecological aspects should be conducted for further conservation action plans of this species.
No complete record for bats in Pakistan is available right now. Currently, some people are involving in research work about taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of bats. In the future, hopefully, enough data will be available to cover the exact taxonomic positions of various bat species from Pakistan. Juste et al. (2013) reassigned this taxon to the genus Rhyneptesicus Bianchi, 1917 based on molecular phylogenetics . Four subspecies – R. n. nasutus (Southwest Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Southeast Iran), R. n. matschiei (Southwest Arabia), R. n. pellucens (Iran and Iraq), and R. n. batinensis (Eastern Arabia including Oman and Saudi Arabia), are recognized [8, 22].
Genetic markers like mtDNA and nuDNA describe a geographic and genetic relatedness for discontinuous distribution of the genus Rhyneptesicus. The taxonomic reconstruction of nasutus samples from Iran which are close to Pakistan validates the subspecies recognition  hence this study also confirms its presence by range extension and validation by molecular marker (cytochrome b gene). Current molecular investigations have placed Eptesicus in tribe Nycticeini, separating it from pipistrelles . For phylogenetic reconstruction, Genbank Accession Numbers of Rhyneptesicus species belonging to Iran were retrieved (FJ841981, FJ841980, EU786840, EU786839), from Oman (KF019042, KF019043, KF019044, KF019041, KF019040), from Yemen (KF019057, KF019056), from Germany (AF376836), from China (MG570068, EU786841), from Laos (EU786849) and from Patagonia (MK429705, MK429702, MK429700). While a vampire bat species Desmodus routundus (KU938397) was used as an outgroup in this phylogenetic reconstruction. The genetic divergence of these Rhyneptesicus species is given in table 3.
The genus Rhyneptesicus has a worldwide distribution and high diversity, and hence represents a tangled taxonomic puzzle among mammals. The status of this species is Least Concern as it has a widespread distribution and shows tolerance for modified habitats. So, it is unlikely to decline fast enough to categorize it as a threatened taxon. The distribution record of Rhyneptesicus nasutus is wide and patchy. It has been reported from Arabian Peninsula to western South Asia, recorded from Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar, Kuwait, southeastern Iran, and southern Iraq. From South Asia, it has been reported from Afghanistan and Pakistan, but from the territorial boundary of Pakistan, it is just reported from Baluchistan and Sind [9, 24, 25]. However, the new record for range extension of Rhyneptesicus nasutus is reported from Bajaur Agency, FATA, Pakistan.
The distributional record of Rhyneptesicus nasutus in Baluchistan (Seistan) is more or less continuous while in Afghanistan (Jalalabad valley) its occurrence is 700–800 km away to the nearest record of central Pakistan . The distributional range of the Eptesicus is variable in different geographical areas depicts its adaptability to different geographically climatic ranges. Conversely, in the Middle East, the occurrence of Rhyneptesicus nasutus has been reported in a mosaic of isolated patches as compared to in a continuous belt [26, 27], this might be the case for its distributional range (Province Sindh and Baluchistan and then in the mountainous area of Bajaur Agency) in Pakistan distribution in central Pakistan represents another such patch; Bates & Harrison (1997) summarized three records from central Baluchistan (Kharan, Rajbar, a junction of the Razhai and Sichk rivers; [9, 28], one from northern Sindh (near Rohri; (Blanford, 1898) and current study explores the identification and the range extension to northern Pakistan. Where an extensive survey should be conducted to explore more roost sites and population dynamics of Rhyneptesicus.
It is summarized that the effects of climate change on the range extension of Rhyneptesicus may be primarily determined by the weather consequences on the habitat requirements and physiological tolerances of the species under study. Here, in the case of Rhyneptesicus nasutus evolution in ecologically different environment of Bajaur Agency, Pakistan may be due to variable environmental conditions as compared to its prior occurrence in other regions of the country, i.e., Baluchistan and Sind province. The data obtained during this study is very significant as no record about phylogenetic analysis of bats is available in Pakistan.
This study describes the comparison of cytochrome b sequences for Rhyneptesicus species from Pakistan, Iran, Oman, Germany, Laos, Yemen, China, and Patagonia to access the genetic divergence and evolutionary analysis among these localities of the world. The distribution and divergence in different parts of the world suggest that Rhyneptesicus species have evolved and spread in various localities as suggested by bootstrap values of more than 60 %. The close cladistic relationship of Pakistani and Iranian Rhyneptesicus specimens suggests that they share a common ancestry as compared to the others reported from the world. No data of cytochrome b from the Afghanistan region is available so we can not infer any cladistic relationship of Pakistani Rhyneptesicus specimens with Afghanistan’s specimens.
Bat populations appear to be declining presumably in response to human-induced environmental stresses like habitat destruction and fragmentation, disturbance to caves, depletion of food resources, overhunting for bushmeat and persecution, increased use of pesticides, infectious disease, and wind energy turbines. As bats are among the most overlooked despite their economical and ecological importance, their conservation is mandatory. An extensive study is recommended to explore the distribution range and highlight the significance of bats throughout the territorial limits of Pakistan.