Phosphomolybdate-based nanoparticles (PMo12-based NPs) have been commonly applied in nanomedicine. However, upon contact with biofluids, proteins are quickly adsorbed onto the NPs surface to form a protein corona, which induces the opsonization and facilitates the rapid clearance of the NPs by macrophage uptake. Herein, we introduce a family of structurally homologous PMo12-based NPs (CDS-PMo12@PVPx(x = 0 ~ 1) NPs) capping diverse content of zwitterionic polymer poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) to regulate the protein corona formation on PMo12-based NPs. The fluorescence quenching data indicate that the introduction of PVP effectively reduces the number of binding sites of proteins on PMo12-based NPs. Molecular docking simulations results show that the contact surface area and binding energy of proteins to CDS-PMo12@PVP1 NPs are smaller than the CDS-PMo12@PVP0 NPs. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is further applied to analyze and quantify the compositions of the human plasma corona formation on CDS-PMo12@PVPx(x = 0 ~ 1) NPs. The number of plasma protein groups adsorption on CDS-PMo12@PVP1 NPs, compared to CDS-PMo12@PVP0 NPs, decreases from 372 to 271. In addition, 76 differentially adsorption proteins are identified between CDS-PMo12@PVP0 and CDS-PMo12@PVP1 NPs, in which apolipoprotein is up-regulated in CDS-PMo12@PVP1 NPs. The apolipoprotein adsorption onto the NPs is proposed to have dysoponic activity and enhance the circulation time of NPs. Our findings demonstrate that PVP grafting on PMo12-based NPs is a promising strategy to improve the anti-biofouling property for PMo12-based nanodrug design.