Effects of detecting the presence of the virus (COVID-19 in the Chinese state of Wuhan in December 2019. which spread all over the world, have shocked all international societies. The rapid spread of the disease was accompanied by the registration of injuries and deaths that reaches (1,780,433) at the global level by April 12, 2020. As a result of all this, it has been described by WHO as a pandemic (Amin, 2020). This pandemic causes daily more human losses at the global level as a result of deaths and large numbers of injured people, in addition to financial and economic losses as a result of quarantine, home long-staying, loss of jobs, difficulty in accessing vital supplies, almost complete cessation of the life movement of life and social and psychological effects.( Kumar, Nayar,2021)
The (COVID-19 has been considered a highly contagious virus (Sheivandi, et al., 2020), and the possibility of infection will generate negative psychological reactions that make everyone behave in an unpredictable way (Amin, 2020). As a result of the international community concern about (COVID-19) and its consequences on the lives of people and life in general, the world's countries and organizations are trying to control this epidemic and to decrease the side effect of it, but so far, the picture has not yet been clear about the direction of this epidemic (Cao, et al, 2020). It has been noted from the results of some related studies that a pandemic (COVID-19) caused fear, persistent depression, anxiety, panic attacks, psychomotor agitation, psychotic symptoms, delirium, and even suicide until it reached the point of thinking about the end of the world. (de Medeiros Carvalho, et al, 2020) Uncontrolled media, misinformation circulating through social media, and mistrust have contributed to the pandemic (COVID-19) have increased fear, tension, and anxiety. (Mohamud et al, 2021) (Amin, 2020). Because of the individual differences in personality factors including the immune system and others and their behavioral interaction in life, the infection and the psychological and other consequences of it do not affect everyone to the same degree (Talidong & Toquero, 2020) (Khosravi,.2020). Therefore elderly people experience fear, anxiety, and the possibility of death from (COVID-19) more than other social strata, because they are exposed to an increased risk as a result of the outbreak of this epidemic, the weakening of the immune system, their chronic diseases, and the increase in cases and deaths (Segerstrom, 2000) ( Zajenkowski et al., 2020(.
The results of some related studies have found a relationship between fear of (COVID-19) and some personality patterns and there were individual differences in the level of fear as a result of the different personality styles (Carvalho,et al, 2020).
Personality patterns are considered as a form of classification, and classification has an economic function in science because it facilitates the process of looking at events, facts, and things through categories that collect them and reduce their multiplicity (Sutton et al., 2013). We can judge its theoretical value and efficiency by the extent of its economy, so the study of patterns appears to be of clear benefit (Cohen et al., 2012). Such behavior is influenced by personality type more than it is affected by sex, gender, or any trait because patterns facilitate individuals to better understand themselves and recognize their strengths and weaknesses. Moreover, if the individual knows well the personality pattern, he can easily predict his behavior, whether it is adaptive behavior or otherwise. At the same time, the study of personality as separate traits loses its complementarity and breaks down its unity (Zajenkowski et al., 2020).
A recent theory has been proposed in the field of personality styles, which attempted to lay down its theoretical foundations in an integrative and holistic manner, overcoming the limitations of previous pattern theories, and this theory was called the theory of Enneagram patterns (Enneagram Type Personality) (ETP). According to it, people are classified in to nine types (helper, accomplished, individual, researcher, sincere, enthusiast, challenge, peace-maker, reformer), and all three of these nine types fall under one of the three personality centers (feelings, thinking, instinct) ), respectively (Wagner, 1981).
Although many of the practitioners at the Enneagram Foundation consider these nine behavior patterns as a system for describing the basic types of personalities, and that each point on the nine-dimensional diagram lies behind the basic motives unique to these dimensions, and the individual behavior is explained through them (Komasi et al., 2016). Except all that, the theoretical literature and previous studies of the Enneagram theories indicate great importance and great benefits at the theoretical and practical levels, especially when we know the pattern of the Enneagram prevailing in a particular individual or community. In this case, we can easily identify the characteristics of this individual or society, and then we predict its behavior (Alexander&Schnipke,2020). Also, knowing and understanding the patterns of Enneagram in the personality helps to understand the motives, feelings, and thoughts of the individual, and this understanding has great practical value in guiding and directing people and placing them in their appropriate life roles (Wagner, 1981). Likewise, the integrative function of the Enneagram theories, which emphasizes dynamic interaction according to a systems perspective, gives a better opportunity to understand personality dynamics more than other type theories (Newgent, et al., 2004). This function has great importance for those working in the fields of personality, mental health, and human development in order to understand the mechanisms of psychological conflict, adaptive factors, causes, and factors of healthy, modified, and inanimate behavior, and to explain the mechanisms of integration and incompleteness in the personality of the individual in order to use appropriate developmental, preventive and therapeutic approaches.
This study has been proposed by the researcher as a result of the deficiencies in studies dealing with the relationship of these patterns with important aspects of individuals' behavior, especially in their relationship to a (COVID-19) virus.