Colistin is a last-resort treatment option for infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, colistin resistance is increasing. A six-month prospective matched case-control study was performed in which 22 Dutch laboratories with 32 associated hospitals participated. Laboratories were invited to send a maximum of five colistin-resistant Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae (COLR-EK) isolates and five colistin-susceptible isolates (COLS-EK), matched on patient location, material of origin and bacterial species. After confirmatory tests, 72 COLR-EK/COLS-EK pairs (75% E. coli and 25% K. pneumoniae) were included. Twenty-one percent of COLR-EK patients had received colistin, in contrast to 3% of COLS-EK patients (OR>2.9). Of COLR-EK isolates, five contained mcr-1 and two mcr-9. One isolate lost mcr-9 after repeated sub-culturing, but retained colistin resistance. Among 46 sequenced COLR-EK isolates, genetic diversity was large and 19 (41.3%) isolates had chromosomal mutations potentially associated with colistin resistance. In conclusion, colistin resistance is not rare in the Netherlands and caused by the mcr gene in a minority of COLR-EK isolates.