Mislocalization of the predominantly nuclear RNA/DNA binding protein, TDP-43, occurs in motor neurons of ~95% of ALS patients, but the contribution of axonal TDP-43 to this fatal neurodegenerative disease is unclear. Here, we find TDP-43 accumulation in the axons of intra-muscular nerves from ALS patients, and in motor neurons and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of a mouse model with TDP-43 mislocalization. This leads to the formation of G3BP1- and TDP-43- positive RNA-granules in motor neuron axons, and to inhibition of local protein synthesis in axons and NMJs. Specifically, the axonal and synaptic levels of nuclear-encoded mitochondria proteins are reduced. Clearance of axonal TDP-43 restored local translation of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins and rescued TDP-43-derived axonal and NMJ toxicity. These findings suggest that targeting TDP-43 axonal gain of function may mediate a therapeutic effect in ALS.