To implement precision oncology, analytical validity as well as clinical validity and utility are important. However, proficiency testing (PT) to assess validity has not yet been systematically performed in Japan. To investigate the quality of next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms and cancer genome testing prevalent in laboratories, we performed pilot PT using patient samples. We prepared 5 samples from patients with lung or colorectal cancer, extracted genomic DNA from the cancer tissue and peripheral blood, and distributed these to 15 laboratories. Most participating laboratories successfully identified the pathogenic variants, except for two closely located KRAS variants, and 25-bp delins in the EGFR exon 19, not identified by the in vitro diagnostics testing. Conversely, the EGFR L858R variant was successfully identified, and the allele frequency was similar for all the laboratories. A high DNA integrity number led to excellent depth and reliable NGS results. All NGS platforms and bioinformatics pipelines have advantages and disadvantages. We propose the use of a PT program using patient samples to ascertain the quality status of cancer gene testing in laboratories and to ensure that laboratories have sufficient information to develop advancements in precision medicine for cancer.