Below we give examples of sudden outbursts of rocks and gas from a rock mass from which it can be concluded that nature uses both chemical and mechanical, and combined mechanisms of the Coulomb explosion in the processes of emissions. A common feature of Coulomb explosions is the release of a by-product - a large amount of ultrafine dust, the so-called rabid flour (up to 40% of the total mass of the ejection), with particle sizes within a few nanometers, which can be formed during the ejection of rocks and gas only in a single case - as a result of the destruction of crystal lattices , because such a fine grinding of the rock cannot be achieved by any kind of blasting or without special equipment. The formation of a gaseous phase during the processes of sudden outbursts of rocks is also a by-product of the process, which makes an additional contribution to the energy characteristic of the Coulomb explosion. The gaseous phase is formed for two reasons: 1. In chemical reactions of the type of formation of hydrogen molecules during the reaction of sodium in water. For example, due to hydroxide ions in the crystal lattices of hydroxides and basic salts. 2. As a result of dissociation and ionization of molecules of a solid solution of gases formed in the crystal lattices of rocks at the moment of formation of the rock mass and passing into a free state in the focus of the Coulomb explosion due to the emerging chemical chain reaction (CCR). The chain nature of the reaction is caused by the appearance of accelerated electrons, which are not only the source of the Coulomb explosion but also the initiator of the CCR and which in turn will cause the appearance of intermediate active particles (free radicals, excited atoms, and molecules) [6, 7, 8]. It should be noted that the formation of the gaseous phase and the passage of the shock wave of the Coulomb explosion cause another physical phenomenon in the rock mass, which is especially pronounced during underground emissions - the Richtmyer - Meshkov instability , which results in a sudden outflow of turbulent gas jets from the rock mass and the destroyed particles of rocks captured by them from the point of origin of the disturbance following the front of the shock wave.
Quantum rock and gas ejection mechanism
During the formation of an elementary rock mass, as a result of the action of high temperatures, pressure, an aggressive environment, and the stresses arising from the movement of rock blocks, metamorphic transformations of the mass occur. Over time, the rock massifs not only change the geological, geometric, and chemical form and structure, but also energy parameters. As a result of the compaction of rocks (a change in its volume), as well as from the effect of high temperatures, energy in the form of quanta is imparted to the electrons of the rocks. According to Mr. Bohr's quant model of the atom, if the energy imparted to the electron exceeds the critical potential, then the electron goes to a higher level, storing potential energy (a macroscopic analogy is a compressed spring). A mountain range in such a metastable state can remain indefinitely. Over the years, at a random moment in time, as a result of the confluence of various natural or man-made factors, there is a sharp decrease in rock pressure in the considered elementary volume of the rock mass. In this case, the rock mass changes its volume and shape in the form of rock heaving (analogy - the spring is unclenched) and as a result, its potential energy sharply decreases, and the kinetic energy, and therefore the speed of electrons, atoms, and molecules, increases sharply, which leads to their mutual inelastic collision of the second kind, the appearance of electric charges and the appearance of an electromagnetic field. In this process, it is especially important that in inelastic collisions of the second kind, electrons do not emit quanta, but on the contrary, energy is transferred from excited atoms and molecules to electrons. As a result, electrons are accelerated and leave the crystal lattice, simultaneously initiating two processes - the Coulomb explosion and the CCR. There are two things to note here. 1. The first nuance is associated with the behavior of hydrated water molecules. In the generated electromagnetic field, the H2O molecules create a hydration shell around the ions of the crystal lattice, which screens the ions from charges of the opposite sign. And since water, depending on the temperature, has a high dielectric constant of ~ 80, the electrostatic attraction of ions and electrons will accordingly decrease ~ 80 times. It should be noted that many rocks of the lithosphere contain hydroxide mineral impurities containing hydrated water: [(SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O, Na2O) • nH2O]. For example, the mineral constituent of marble limonite - Fe2O3 • nH2O, is also the mineral constituent of coal and many other rocks. In connection with the leading role of the dielectric constant in the ejection processes, it should be noted the class of so-called ferroelectrics, which can also be part of rocks, for example, the constant of the dielectric constant of tetrahydrate of double sodium-potassium salt KNaC4H4O6 4H2O is much higher than water and is ~ 500. 2. The second nuance lies in the fact that the nucleation of chains occurs with the participation of numerous admixtures-initiators, which are rich in rocks. Such impurities can be molecules with a weak bond, for example, alkali metals, during the decomposition of which free radicals are easily formed, or molecules that easily enter into redox reactions. For example, coal ash, depending on the grade, contains: 1.3 - 80.9% Fe2O3; 0.87 - 42.7% Al2O3; 1.7 - 76% SiO2; 0.6 - 36.9% CaO; 0 - 10.7% SO3. In addition, small amounts of lithium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, rubidium, cesium, sulfur, phosphorus, sometimes titanium, zinc, copper, nickel, etc. are included in the composition of coal, which can act as initiators of the CCR. Consider a few examples of sudden rock and gas outbursts.
The Usoi collapse  that occurred in the Pamirs on 02/18/1911., Fig. 1, can be considered a sudden release of rocks and gas, because a block of rock with a volume of ~ 1.5 km3, after being torn away from the parent body, did not just slide down the slope, but flew a distance of 5 km. along an inclined path. The calculated energy and momentum of force for the movement of a physical body of such a mass is 1.1 × 1017 J. To date, there is no reasonable explanation for this well-described and documented case in the scientific literature, however, as well as other similar catastrophic collapses. We believe that the Usoi collapse occurred due to the Coulomb explosion that occurred at the time of a sharp change in the cantilever loads in the mother's body when various natural mining-hydro-geological and weather factors coincided in time. It is known that the displaced mass of the ejection consisted of siliceous shale, and the bed of the ejection funnel was lined with reddish marble. According to our hypothesis, as a result of a combination of various factors, the cantilever loads exceeded the ultimate strength of the rocks in the zone of contact between siliceous shale and marble. A sudden redistribution of loads led to the appearance of accelerated electrons in the array, which, having received energy from excited atoms and molecules and the energy of inertial forces at the moment of acceleration, were forced to leave the crystal lattice. The electromagnetic field induced by the moving stream of electrons unfolded the dipoles of the hydrated water of the marble, which isolated the ions of the crystal lattice and compensated for the Coulomb forces of attraction between the ions and electrons by the value of the constant of dielectric permeability, which gave rise to the reactions of the Coulomb explosion and CCR. The resulting impulse of force with an energy of 1.1 • 1017 J. threw a part of the mountain range with a volume of 1.5 km3 at a distance of 5 km. The resulting gases scattered in the atmosphere. The collapse zone was covered with a layer of rabid flour, the deposits of which can be traced to the present day. In addition, the researchers found melted pieces of rocks, which in no way fit into the gravitational hypothesis of collapse. Our hypothesis assumes that the fused rocks serve as strong evidence of the high-speed process of the Coulomb explosion that occurred, accompanied by the release of a significant level of thermal energy, which the massif did not have time to take away and that served as an impetus for further heating of rocks and gases in geometric progression and for the even greater acceleration of reactions due to shock ionization. A month ago, a similar incident occurred in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada, and was accompanied by the sound of a strong explosion and a thick cloud of rabid flour . True, the caliber of this emission was much smaller.
Sudden rock and gas outbursts in underground potash and coal mines
From the experience of underground mines for the extraction of potash salts and coal, it can be concluded that the amount of rock and gas emissions increases with the depth of mining, that is, with an increase in rock pressure. Let us give an example of a classic discharge that occurred on June 7, 1953, at the Menzengraben mine (Germany). At the time of the release, several hundred thousand cubic meters of gas were released and about 100,000 tons of salt were emitted. The gas mixture consisted of CO2 (up to 95%) and N2. Gas escaped noisily from both shaft shafts 520 m deep for about 25 minutes. The blowout completely disrupted ventilation, destroyed the mining equipment, the reinforced concrete roof of the mine shaft . Based on the consideration of the conditions of the Coulomb explosion, we can conclude that the mined potassium salt - carnallite KCl • MgCl2 • 6H2O, ideally meets the requirements of the initiator of the Coulomb explosion and CCR. Carnallite is an aqueous potassium chloride, which is no less aggressive metal than sodium, which has hydrated water molecules in its composition. In addition, the mineral carnallite includes impurities of other, no less aggressive alkali metals - rubidium and cesium, which, in turn, can act not only as initiators of the Coulomb explosion but also as catalysts for CCR. And the last, no less important point, a sudden release occurred at the time of blasting, that is, at the time of a sharp drop in rock pressure in the massif. In this case, an ideal case of a merger of chemical and physical and mechanical factors occurred, which led to a powerful ejection of rocks from the massif, which ended in a gas ejection as a result of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. According to the same scheme, sudden rock and gas outbursts occur in coal mines, but since coal contains much less alkali metal impurities in its composition, the process of coal sudden rock and gas outbursts is extended over time. Initially, several local mini-Coulomb explosions occur, which accompany the CCR of insignificant strength. In the process of "swinging," more and more atoms and electrons are drawn into the ejection process. In the rock mass, noise effects, increased gas release, firing of the rock with pieces of coal, peeling of the face and sides of the mine start, and only after such “swinging” a full-fledged release of rocks and gas occurs. Although, sudden rock and gas outbursts of significant strength can occur immediately, without “swinging”. With the largest emissions, millions of m³ of gas were released and emitted tens of thousands of tons of coal.