Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable carbon resource on earth, for which many efforts have been made to convert it using various chemocatalytic processes. Heterogeneously chemocatalytic conversion conducted based on reusable solid catalysts is the process with the greatest potential studied presently. This review provides insights into the representative achievements in the research area of heterogeneous chemical catalysis technologies for the production of value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose). Popular approaches for the conversion of lignocellulosic polysaccharides into chemicals, including hydrolyzation (glucose, xylose and arabinose), dehydration (5-hydroxymethylfurfuran, furfural and levulinic acid), hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, 1,2-propylene glycol, ethlyene glycol and ethanol), selective oxidation (gluconic acid and lactic acid), have been comprehensively reviewed. However, technological barriers still exist, which have to be overcome to further integrate hydrolysis with the refinery processes based on multifunctional solid catalysts, and convert ligncellulosic polysaccharides into value-added fine chemicals. In general, the approaches and technologies are discussed and critically evaluated in terms of the possibilities and potential for further industrial implementation.