Most advanced ovarian cancer patients experience recurrence and develop resistance to platinum-based agents. However, the diagnosis of platinum resistance based on platinum-free interval is not always accurate and timely. In this study, we employed laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to visualize platinum distribution in the tissues at the time of interval debulking surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Twenty seven patients with advanced high grade serous ovarian cancer were enrolled. Two distinct patterns of platinum distribution were observed. Type A (n = 16): platinum accumulation at the adjacent stroma but little in the tumor; type B (n = 11): even distribution of platinum through tumor and adjacent stroma. Type A was significantly correlated with worse prognosis (P = 0.031). Patients classified in type A and treated with platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy after operation were significantly shorter period of recurrence after last platinum-based chemotherapy (P = 0.020) and diagnosed with “platinum-resistant recurrence”. Treatment with non-platinum-based chemotherapy after operation could be effective for the patients who were classified in type A. Our data indicate that the platinum resistance can be predicted prior to recurrence with platinum distribution. Thus, we will be able to select more appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy, which may possibly lead to improve patient’s prognosis.