Building structures are prone to damage due to natural disasters, and this challenges structural engineers to design safer and more robust building structures. This study is conducted to prevent these consequences by implementing a control strategy that can enhance a building's stability and reduce the risk of damage. Therefore, to realize the structural integrity of a building, a hybrid control device is equipped with control strategies to enhance robustness. The control strategy proposed in this study is adaptive nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (ANTSMC). ANTSMC is an integrated controller of radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (NTSMC), which has a fast dynamic response, finite-time convergence, and the ability to enhance the control performance against a considerable uncertainty. The proposed controller is designed based on the sliding surface and the control law. The building with a two-degree-of-freedom (DOF) system is designed in Matlab/Simulink and validated with the experimental work connected to the LMSTest.Lab software. The performance of this controller is compared with those of the terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) and NTSMC in terms of the displacement response, sliding surface, and the probability of damage. The result showed that the proposed controller, ANTSMC can suppress vibrations up to 46%, and its percentage probability of complete damage is 15% from the uncontrolled structure. Thus, these findings are imperative towards increasing the safety level in building structures and occupants, and reducing damage costs in the event of a disaster.