Vegetation creates opportunities for reproduction and identifies ideal living conditions for avian communities. Therefore, the diversity of vegetation determines the species richness, while good quality habitats can provide suitable forage places and nesting opportunities, thus ensuring the longevity of a species. Another primary indicator of the relationship between avian community and vegetation is avian diversity. Avian diversity was a good predictor of tree density , which means species occurrences declined as resource availability decrease, and breeding sites reduced relative to the percentage of vegetation cover remaining . Simultaneously, avian community structure and composition can also be affected by local environmental factors such as predation and competition, and by large-scale ecological factors, such as the structure and the degree of habitat isolation [3–5].
Vegetation is the central part of the terrestrial ecosystem and is considered a sensitive indicator for environmental change as it reflects the land cover change to a certain extent [6, 7]. Wetlands are essential for many wildlife forms as they appreciated providing quality and abundant habitats concerning avian communities and vegetation composition . The vegetation structure and composition often strongly influence avian distribution [9, 10]. Besides, avian is commonly monitored to assess the biological consequences of management interventions and disturbance regime changes [11, 12]. Avian and vegetation depend not only on each other but also on the entire food chain for additional food, shelter, and reproduction.
All in all, the species traits provide a mechanistic link between the functional diversity of the avian community and the landscape characteristics, for they are directly related to vegetation characteristics . The increased concerns of climate change have prompted research in preserving our wildlife, more notably wetlands. Wetlands are threatened ecosystems [14, 15] that inhabit many wildlife species and are the core haven for their survival. Climate change imposes extinction on this way of life. However, it can be noted that human population growth coupled with the rise in demand for settlements, agricultural land, and wood products is altering essential wildlife habitats, avian diversity patterns, and overall biodiversity worldwide[8, 16]. That is due to agriculture stressors and development . Wetlands have been reduced by more than 50% globally [17, 18], with one-third to one-half changes in land surface involved human influences . With the gradual wetlands due to development and pollution, these species deteriorating relationship with vegetation is consummate data to understand species diversity and vegetation before it is too late. The effects of urbanization on avian diversity may be mitigated by wetlands, enhancing habitat, and increasing resource availability.
Nonetheless, one of the major driving forces in the destruction of natural wetlands is urbanization [20, 21] in wetland habitat quality. Avian is considered suitable biomarker . They also considered surrogates for assessing the impact of habitat changes [23, 24]. Avian is an indicator of environmental changes due to their sensitivity to ecological variables . This particular ability credits them to build homes anywhere globally as long as the vegetation and climate are suitable for survival. The forests with complex composition and floristic richness have a high diversity of avian communities [26–29]. However, to understand avian community structures and their relationships with vegetation type variations, it is important to relate them to changed habitats . Therefore, it is important to assess the relationship between avian and habitat changes [31–34]. Vegetation cover was positively related to avian species richness . Avian has ranked as one of the critical components of vegetation dynamics, helping assess vegetation cover environmental effects more clearly . This research is the first to be done in the study area, our objective was to find the relationship between vegetation cover in Tianfu national wetland park and bird communities, In keeping with this understanding, and we conceptualized the hypothesis. Does vegetation change affect the avian community in Tianfu National Wetland Park? Do avian abundance, richness, and diversity will vary seasonally?