The COVID-19 pandemic is having a catastrophic impact on human health. Widespread community transmission has triggered stringent distancing measures with severe socioeconomic consequences. Gaining control of the pandemic will depend on interruption of transmission chains until protective herd immunity arises. Ferrets and related members of the weasel genus transmit SARS-CoV-2 efficiently with minimal clinical signs, resembling spread in the young-adult population. We previously reported an orally efficacious nucleoside analog inhibitor of influenza viruses, EIDD-2801 (or MK-4482), that was repurposed against SARS-CoV-2 and is in phase II/III clinical trials. Employing the ferret model, we demonstrate in this study high SARS-CoV-2 burden in nasal tissues and secretions that coincides with efficient direct-contact transmission. Therapeutic treatment of infected animals with twice-daily MK-4482/EIDD-2801 significantly reduced upper respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 load and completely suppressed spread to untreated contact animals. This study identifies oral MK-4482/EIDD-2801 as a promising antiviral countermeasure to break SARS-CoV-2 community transmission chains.