This paper seeks to calculate the overall emissions of China’s 413 main domestic routes in 2018, containing the Landing and Take-Off (LTO) emissions and Climb/Cruise/Descent (CCD) emissions. First, the standard calculation method of LTO emissions proposed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is applied to calculate the LTO emissions of 413 routes and 40 airlines. Next, the modified Fuel Percentage Method (MFPM) is used to calculate the CCD emissions of main aircraft types at various distances. Then the overall emissions are split into the Provincial Administrative Regions (PARs) on the routes to discuss the probable carbon compensations, which is the core to build an aviation carbon trading mechanism. China Southern Airlines, China Eastern Airlines, and Air China are the top three airlines in emissions. Guangdong has the most carbon emissions from airlines, but it may get the third most carbon compensation from the airlines.