Background The RNF family engaged in diverse biological and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis and cancer advance. However, studies about Ring Finger Protein 24 (RNF24) were limited and have not been reported in cancer. A systematic analysis in pan-cancer is a benefit to understand the function of RNF24.
Methods RNF24 expression was evaluated in pan-cancer based on the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) analyzed by TIMER, UALCAN, GEPIA, and HPA. Then, the effect of RNF24 on the prognostic value was assessed by clinical survival data in Kaplan–Meier Plotter and GEPIA. And mutation burden and related survival of RNF24 was observed in cBioPortal. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks of RNF24 and pathway enrichment analysis were explored on multiple websites. Lastly, relationships between RNF24 expression and immune cells infiltration were analyzed in the TIMER2 online database with various algorithms.
Results The mRNA and protein levels of RNF24 were significantly upregulated in most types of cancer compared to normal tissues. And RNF24 was a reliable biomarker to predict prognosis in at least 10 types of cancer, including liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC). In addition, we showed the genetic alteration, PPI networks, and functional pathway of RNF24. Moreover, immune cell infiltration exhibited RNF24 expression negatively linked to CD8+ T cells, but positively to Tregs, MDSCs, HSC, and macrophages in pan-cancer.
Conclusions Our pan-cancer analysis revealed RNF24 as an oncogene and its expression predicted OS in multiple human cancers, especially in LIHC. RNF24 might predict the immunotherapy response for cancer patients based on its expression with infiltration of immune and immunosuppressive cells.