River systems acts as the critical factor for site selection. In the process of rural evolution, river adaptability created by human settlement is fading away due to inadequate understanding of inherent spatial characteristics. To better understand the inherent law of the applicability of traditional villages river systems , this study proposed the concept of inheritance based on spatial measurement of the correlation between traditional villages and river systems. With the help of GIS10.8 and SPSS26.0 software, this study takes 658 national traditional villages of Hunan and domestic river systems as an example to measure the spatial correlation characteristics,which concludes spatial pattern, spatial density and spatial distance. Summarize the similarity and differences characteristics of spatial distribution. Analyse and interpret the impact index of spatial correlation through the stepwise regression model. The results actually showed that traditional villages are uneven distributed along river systems, which are mainly affected by minority population, elevation and farming industry. In addition, traditional villages are less with the increase of spatial distance from river systems. The values of spatial quantitative measurement and mechanism can reflect the traditional survival wisdom.It can guide significance for spatial growth mechanism of integration with environment and provide references for future conservation and utilization of spatial heritage sustainability.