Background: The objective of our research work was to identify the predictive factors of metabolic disorder and the pro-fibrotic factors which would be correlated with high levels of Galectin-3(Gal-3) in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: We carried out an analytical cross-sectional study.We included 260 type 2 diabetics followed in our endocrinology department.For the purpose of determining a threshold value of Gal-3,we asked for a non-diabetic control group. The medical history interview included history of diabetes, use of antihypertensive medications, lipid-lowering medication, smoking habits and physical activity.A careful clinical examination was performed for all patients and all of them underwent a biological analysis with an assay of the plasma concentrations of Galectin-3.
Results: Our study included 260 type 2 diabetics with an average age of 59.4±8.9years.The sex ratio was 0.78.We established a threshold for galectin-3 with the best sensitivity and specificity at 11.25ng/ml using the ROC curve.We found a significant positive correlation of Gal-3 with age (p<0.001),duration of diabetes (p=0.024),systolic blood pressure (p =0.032), diabetic retinopathy (p<0.001), body mass index (p=0.01), waist circumference(p<0.001), hypertension (p<0.001), dyslipidemia (p=0.023),triglyceridemia (p=0.029).An inverse association between Gal-3 level and physical activity(p=0.014),hypoplipemic treatment (p=0.040),metformin (p=0.028) and glomerular filtration rate (p<0.001) were observed.
Conclusion: We established a threshold value of Gal-3 and we discovered the clinical and biological parameters correlated with the elevation of Gal-3 which would be pro-fibrosating factors.We have also demonstrated that this lectin is a key player as a new marker and therapeutic target for the control of metabolic disorders.