In this paper, a counter-flow rotary kiln incineration system with a processing capacity of 40 t/d of an environmental protection company in Jiangsu Province was used as the research object, and the mixed pyrolysis model and computational fluid dynamics（CFD）model of the counter-flow rotary kiln incineration system were established using Aspen plus and Fluent software. The influence of the operating temperature of the rotary kiln, the heating value of solid waste, the operating load of the rotary kiln, and the primary air volume and primary air speed on the operating effect of the rotary kiln were explored. Operating temperature, primary air volume and wind speed can all have a greater impact on the incineration performance of the counterflow rotary kiln. When the operating temperature of the counter-flow rotary kiln is greater than 800 o C, the hazardous waste heat value is not less than 1500 kcal/kg, and the primary wind speed is 1.5 m/s, the operating effect of the counter-flow rotary kiln incineration system is the best. The simulation results can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimal operation of the counterflow rotary kiln incineration system.