Chronic rhinosinusitis is classified into eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (NECRS). ECRS is a refractory allergic disease involving a variety of immune and epithelial cells. S100A8 is a damage-associated molecular pattern that is closely related to allergic inflammation. However, the pathological implications of S100A8 in ECRS have not been clarified. We evaluated the role of S100A8 in the pathogenesis of ECRS. Gene expression profiles of nasal polyps obtained from patients with ECRS or NECRS were evaluated using RNA sequencing. S100A8 was identified as a significantly upregulated gene in nasal polyps associated with ECRS. Immunohistochemistry consistently revealed intense S100A8 staining in nasal polyps from patients with ECRS. Human nasal epithelial cells expressed the receptor for advanced glycation end products and Toll-like receptor 4. Recombinant S100A8 protein induced interleukin-1β secretion in human nasal epithelial cells. Our data demonstrate that S100A8 results in production of interleukin-1β in the nasal epithelium, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of ECRS.