Analyzing the coupling relationship between biodiversity and environmental geology and exploring the factors affecting the coupling degree are of vital significance for the protection and restoration of the ecological environment. In this study, we selected five typical areas (i.e., Caohai, Chishui, Fanjingshan, Maolan, and Guanshanhu) to represent the whole Guizhou Province, China. Based on the coupling coordination degree model, we analyzed their coupling coordination trend. The results showed that the coordinated development stages of the Chishui and Fanjingshan areas both could be categorized as the synchronous development type of primary coordination because of their excellent nature conditions; the Maolan area was categorized as having restrained environmental geology because of its weak environmental geology condition; and the Guanshanhu and Weining areas were strongly affected by human activities, and both could be categorized as having restrained biodiversity. In combination with practical situation, Guizhou province can be categorized into the following three zones: an original ecological zone, a zone with fragile ecological environment, and a zone affected by human activities. Biodiversity conservation measures should be proposed according to the specific ecological situation of these different zones. In this way, the harmonious coexistence of economic development and the ecological environment can be realized.