Neuron exhibits nonlinear dynamics such as excitability transition and post-inhibitory rebound (PIR) spike related to bifurcations, which are associated with information processing, locomotor modulation, or brain disease. PIR spike is evoked by inhibitory stimulation instead of excitatory stimulation, which presents a challenge to the threshold concept. In the present paper, 7 codimension-2 or degenerate bifurcations related to 10 codimension-1 bifurcations are acquired in a neuronal model, which presents the bifurcations underlying the excitability transition and PIR spike. Type I excitability corresponds to saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant cycle (SNIC) bifurcation, and type II excitability to saddle-node (SN) bifurcation or sub-critical Hopf (SubH) bifurcation or sup-critical Hopf (SupH) bifurcation. The excitability transition from type I to II corresponds to the codimension-2 bifurcation, Saddle-Node Homoclinic orbit (SNHO) bifurcation, via which SNIC bifurcation terminates and meanwhile big homoclinic orbit (BHom) bifurcation and SN bifurcation emerge. A degenerate bifurcation via which BHom bifurcation terminates and fold limit cycle (LPC) bifurcation emerges is responsible for spiking transition from type I to II, and the roles of other codimension-2 bifurcations (Cusp, Bogdanov-Takens, and Bautin) are discussed. In addition, different from the widely accepted viewpoint that PIR spike is mainly evoked near Hopf bifurcation rather than SNIC bifurcation, PIR spike is identified to be induced near SNIC or BHom or LPC bifurcations, and threshold curves resemble that of Hopf bifurcation. The complex bifurcations present comprehensive and deep understandings of excitability transition and PIR spike, which are helpful for the modulation to neural firing activities and physiological functions.