Background: OVATE family proteins (OFPs) are plant-specific proteins with the conserved OVATE domain that regulating plant growth and development. Although these OFPs have been studied in several species, the biological functions of this OFP gene family remain largely unknown in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Results: In this study, we identified 19 CsOFPs in cucumber. This CsOFPs are distributed on seven chromosomes and can be divided into four subgroups. Most CsOFP genes are expressed in reproductive organs although have different expression patterns. Cis-elements analysis showed that there are six kinds of hormone response elements in CsOFPs and exogenous gibberellin treatment leads to a ‘first increase then decrease’ expression pattern of CsOFP7, CsOFP11 and CsOFP12. Ectopic expression of CsOFP11 in Arabidopsis resulted in shorter and blunt siliques. Conclusions: Together, these results indicated that CsOFPs may play important roles in cucumber fruit development.