Organisms must overcome environmental limitations to optimize their investment in life history stages to maximize fitness. Human-induced climate change is generating increasingly variable environmental conditions, impacting the demography of prey items and therefore the ability of consumers to successfully access resources to fuel reproduction. While climate change effects are especially pronounced in the Arctic, it is unknown whether organisms can adjust foraging decisions to match such changes. We used a 9-year blood plasma δ13 C and δ15 N dataset from over 700 pre-breeding Arctic common eiders (Somateria mollissima) to assess breeding-stage and inter-annual variation in isotopic niche, and whether inferred trophic flexibility was related to colony-level breeding parameters and environmental variation. Eider blood isotope values varied both across years and breeding stages, and combined with only weak relationships between isotopic metrics and environmental conditions suggests that pre-breeding eiders can make flexible foraging decisions to overcome constraints imposed by local abiotic conditions. From an investment perspective, an inshore, smaller isotopic niche predicted a greater probability to invest in reproduction, but was not related to laying phenology. Proximately, our results provide evidence that eiders breeding in the Arctic can alter their diet at the onset of reproductive investment to overcome increases in the energetic demand of egg production. Ultimately, Arctic pre-breeding common eiders may have the stage- and year-related foraging flexibility to respond to abiotic variation to reproduce successfully.